Tag Archives: ROUMANIA

The Economic History of Byzantium: From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century (XI)-Economic Thought and Ideology

(BEING CONTINUED FROM  3/1/19) (TO BE CONTINUED) /1133 Angeliki E. Laiou NOTES

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The Economic History of Byzantium: From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century (X)-Economic Thought and Ideology

(BEING CONTINUED FROM  26/11/17) In Byzantium, as in the Roman Empire, the laws governing exchange were predicated upon the idea of free contractual negotiation. In law, exchanges are made, and the sale price is established, through negotiation between competent parties, … Continue reading

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The Economic History of Byzantium: From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century (IX)-Economic Thought and Ideology

(BEING CONTINUED FROM  4/09/16) St. Neilos wished to test the commitment of the monks of St. Adrian, a monastery he had founded near Rossano in Calabria, and to teach them “to prefer submission to life itself.” He therefore conceived a … Continue reading

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The Economic History of Byzantium: From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century (VIII)

(BEING CONTINUED FROM  10/03/15) Economic Thought and Ideology The economic thought and the economic ideology of the Byzantines have not yet been the object of detailed study, even though some scholars have written on specific aspects of the ideology that … Continue reading

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The Economic History of Byzantium: From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century (VIII)

(BEING CONTINUED FROM  10/03/15) Laodicaea in  Syria, Tyre, Dor, and Gaza, and especially Caesarea, restored, according to Prokopios,by Anastasios I (491–518), were still active export centers. Alexandria—the annonary  port for Constantinople and the outlet for the eastern spice trade—seems to … Continue reading

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The Economic History of Byzantium: From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century (VII)

(BEING CONTINUED FROM  27/06/14)    8. Map of storage facilities uncovered south of the Crusader wall and reconstruction of a granary in  Caesarea (after J. Patrich, “Warehouse and Granaries in Caesarea Maritima,” in Caesarea Maritima:A Retrospective after Two Millennia, ed. … Continue reading

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The Economic History of Byzantium: From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century (VI)

(BEING CONTINUED FROM  26/09/13) Food of Animal Origin Livestock, both large and small, held an important place in the Mediterranean world.Its character varied considerably according to the importance of pasturage. Thessaly,Epiros, Thrace, and the plains and plateaus of Asia Minor … Continue reading

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The Economic History of Byzantium: From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century (V)

(BEING CONTINUED FROM 4/01/13) Agricultural ProductionProductsAgricultural products of the Mediterranean region during the sixth century were identical  with the products of antiquity. A few examples taken from the north and south of   the empire will suffice. Wheat was produced in … Continue reading

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The Economic History of Byzantium: From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century (IV)

(BEING CONTINUED FROM 31/05/12) The Impoverishment of CitiesThe progressive degradation of the cities is clearly perceptible through excavation and  is characterized by a break with “urban logic.” Thoroughfares became dominated by  shoddy and partitioned structures. The intent of public monuments … Continue reading

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The Economic History of Byzantium: From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century (III)

  (BEING CONTINUED FROM 15/12/11) Landholdings and LandownershipThe emperor was the preeminent landowner and had his estates managed in all regionsby his administrators or leased to them through emphyteusis, a procedure oftenattested in Africa fromthe fourth century on.68 These estates … Continue reading

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The Economic History of Byzantium: From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century (II)

(BEING CONTINUED FROM 28/06/11) The Rural Habitat: The Growth of Villages, the Persistence of Farmsteads, and the Declineof Villas In the east, as in Byzantine North Africa, there is little evidence of the system of thevilla in which large landowners … Continue reading

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The Economic History of Byzantium: From the Seventh through the Fifteenth Century (I)

The Byzantine Empire The Byzantine Empire in the sixth century remained a power that encompassed thewhole Mediterranean basin following Justinian’s costly campaigns of reconquest. Thebarbarians nonetheless still held the Gallic territories and most of the Iberian peninsula,as well as Noricum … Continue reading

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