THE FUTURE OF RELIGIOUS STUDIES IN ETHIOPIA AND ERITREA (1)

 

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(TO  BE CONTINUED)

UGO ZANETTI

SOURCE  SYMPOSIUM  HELD AT FRANCISCAN  CAPUCHIN INSTITUTE OF PHILOSOPHY AND THEOLOGY /1994

ETHIOPEAN REVIEW OF CULTURES PG 133-160

Posted in PHILOSOPHICAL THEMES | Tagged , , , , | Leave a comment

THE ECOUMENIZATION THEORY or ΠΕΡΙ ΤΗΣ ΤΟΥ ΟΙΚΟΥ ΦΥΣΕΩΣ – ΜΕΡΟΣ C / THE NEW POLITIKE DIOIKEESIS

(BEING CONTINUED FROM 16/05/2012)

POLITICAL  TREATISE ON THE SYNPOLIS AND THE META-CITIZENS GOVERNANCE

politikal logos

I SHALL BEGIN WITH
THE ANCESTORS:
IT IS BOTH JUST AND PROPER
THAT THEY SHOULD 
HAVE THE HONOUR OF THE FIRST
MENTION ON AN OCCASION
LIKE THE PRESENT.
             Peloponnesean war (book 2.34-46)
         Pericles Epitaph oration
          THUCYDIDES

AT THE INTRODUCTORY PHILOSOPHICAL CHAPTER PRESENTED PREVIOUSLY  ,WE MENTIONED
THAT THE ENLIGHTENMENT’S TASKS WERE NEVER FULFILLED.
THE OLD ARISTOCRATIC REGIME , COMBINED WITH MIDDLE’S CLASS  LEADERSHIP AND LATER ON BY THE COOPERATION OF THE WORKING CLASS OF THE DEVELOPED  STATES,ESTABLISHED THE TODAY OLIGARCHIC  REPRESENTATIVE REGIMES,BEING CALLED DEMOCRATIC,EVEN IF THEY DON’T INCLUDE SORTING PROCEDURES ΙN THEIR INSTITUTIONS,LIKE IT WAS DONE IN ATHENS.
THAT IS WHY  THE STATES  CONSTITUTIONS ΑRΕ  BETTER DESCRIBED  BY THE ANCIENT ROMAN  TERM OF RES PUBLICA.
NOW-DAYS  ARE STILL EXISTING KINGDOMS,IN SEVERAL COUNTRIES.THESE UNDEMOCRATIC INSTITUTIONS  REMAINED IN POWER ,BY CHANGING  THEIR ROLES ,BUT NOT THEIR INFLUENCES AND ECONOMICAL POWER.
THE OTHER PART ,WHICH WAS CRITICIZED DURING THE 18TH CENTURY AS A VERY STRONG  AND AUSTERE  INSTITUTION , THE CLERGY OF ANY RELIGION,TILL TODAY IS IN  CHARGE ,AT THE FRONT LINES OF THE REPRESENTATIVE DEMOCRACIES,TAKING THE RIGHT ADVANTAGE ,BY THE FALSE POLICIES,WHICH WERE DIRECTED FROM THE COMMUNISTIC DICTATORSHIPS.
THE TECHNOLOGICAL PROGRESS ,KNOWN  AS INDUSTRIAL ERA, FORCED THE ARISTOCRATIC- AUTOCRATIC  CONSTITUTIONS TO MAKE THE  REFORMS  ,WHICH WERE APPROPRIATE FOR THEIR CONTINUATION ,BY BEING TRANSFORMED TO OLIGARCHIES ,EITHER CAPITALISTIC OR COMMUNISTIC,APART FROM THE TYRANNIES.
THE PERIOD DURING THE END OF 20 TH  UP  TO THE   BEGINNING OF THE  21 ST CENTURIES ,BROUGHT TO HUMANITY THE TECHNOLOGICAL REVOLUTION  OF THE COMPUTERS ,INTERNET AND DATA MANAGEMENT SO THAT WE CAN SPEAK FOR A NEW ERA , “THE PLERINFORMAL”ONE.
DUE TO THIS FACT THE REPRESENTATIVE REPUBLICAN REFORMS WHICH WERE DONE ,DURING  THE LAST CENTURIES ,CANNOT SERVICE  ANYMORE ,THE RAPID CIRCULATION OF INFO-DATA TO   A VIRTUAL  LEVEL OF LIFE,WHICH IS AUGMENTING AND DEVELOPING  MIND’S SPIRITUAL NEEDS,INSTEAD FOR THE ECONOMICAL  MATERIALISTIC WAY OF LIVING,AS A MAIN POWER OF EXISTENCE .

THE EDUCATION COMES TO US
FROM NATURE ,
THE USE WE LEARN TO MAKE
OF THIS GROWTH
IS THE EDUCATION OF MEN,
WHAT WE GAIN BY OUR EXPERIENCES
OF OUR SURROUNDINGS
IS THE EDUCATION OF THINGS.
             Emile  –  book I
            JEAN JACQUES ROUSSEAU

THE META-LUCIAN ERA ,AS IT IS DESCRIBED,AT THE  meta natura naturalis SECTION OF THE PRESENTED HERE ESSAY (PONEMA)  IS A FACT.
THE EN-LIGHTENMENT PERIOD DROVE HUMANITY TO SUCH A CONSCIOUS LEVEL,
WHICH PREPARED THE INNER COSMOS OF OURS,IN LEARNING THE USE OF THE TECHNOLOGICAL ACHIEVEMENTS  BY A QUANTITATIVE  STANDARD.
ON THE CONTRARY THE NEW ERA WILL EMBRACE THE QUALITATIVE  NATURAL NEEDS.
THE NEW EPOCH  SHOULDN’T FOLLOW THE PROPOSED SOLUTION OF ONE GLOBAL CENTRAL  GOVERNMENT,BECAUSE BY THIS WAY IT IS ENDANGERED ANY TYPE OF DEMOCRACY.
THE CREATION OF A TEN ZONES GOVERNANCE WAY,PLUS ANOTHER ONE THE  SCIENTIFIC ,ON  PLANET EARTH  ,APART THAT IT WILL  SUSTAIN A CREATIVE  EUGENE COMPETITION,BETWEEN NATIONS AND ZONES,IT SERVES BETTER DEMOCRACY’S IDEALS.
AT  THE SAME TIME  A HARMONIOUS ENVIRONMENT  WILL TRANSMIT ITS VIBRATIONS AT CITIES WHICH ARE SHARING COMMON GEOGRAPHICAL,CLIMATIC  CHARACTERISTICS PLUS  CULTURAL AND HISTORICAL ROOTS.
THIS KIND OF GOVERNANCE ,WILL BE STABILIZED ,BY THE IMPLEMENTATION  OF THE DIRECT SORTING DEMOCRATIC METHODS,COMBINED WITH THE ELECTIVE’S AND APPOINTMENT’S WAYS,WHICH WON’T  EXCEED THE 10% OF THE TOTAL DECISION PROCESSES.
THE VIRTUAL SOCIAL PLATFORMS ARE GOING TO FACILITATE A LOT BY THE CONTRIBUTION  OF CYBERNETICS (1)  TO THE REAL DEMOCRATIC METHODS.
THE OLD ARISTOCRACIES ,WITH THEIR BLUE BLOODED FAMILIES,WILL BE DIRECTED ,BY THE GRACE OF DEMOCRACY ,TO A HONORABLE POSITION,WHICH WILL GUIDE,LEAD (ARCHEI),THE RELIGIOUS AND TRADITIONAL SECTORS OF THE SOCIETIES,BY SERVICING MAINLY THE CEREMONIAL PART.
IN EVERY SINGLE ONE OF THE ZONES ,HOMOSPONDICAL  (KIND OF FEDERALISM) TIES WILL CONNECT THE OLD  STATES,IN A NATIONAL,PERIPHERAL AND REGIONAL  JOINT (HARMOS).
FOLLOWING THE HOMOSPOND IDEA ( SACRIFICE  OF ALTOGETHER TO THE SACRED  COMMON VALUES),ZONE GOVERNING BODIES SHOULD BE MANAGED BY METAPOLITES FROM THE  CONNECTED NATIONS,BY THE MENTIONED ABOVE PRINCIPLES.
ON THE ELEVENTH ZONE ,THE BEST SCIENTISTS FROM  OTHER GAEAN TERRITORIES,,SHOULD  BE GATHERED ,IN COOPERATION WITH  PERMANENT REPRESENTATIONS FROM ALL RELIGIONS AND CITIZENS COMMUNITIES,UNDER THE DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE OF THE OTHER TEN ZONES,IN ORDER TO RESEARCH,EXPERIMENT,INVENT,PRODUCE NEW TECHNOLOGICAL IMPROVEMENTS ,WHICH  ARE ASSISTING  THE  HARMONIOUS LIVING ON EARTH  AND FACILITATE THE COLONIZATION POLICIES OF OTHER PLANETS AND ENVIRONMENTS.
BASIS FOR THE NEW SOCIETIES IT WILL BE THE SYNPOLIS,BEING FOUNDED ON THE UNITY OF 24 UP TO 48 DIFFERENT GROUPS OF PEOPLE, BEING CHARACTERIZED BY THEIR OLDER OR NEWER TRADITIONS FOR  EACH REGION AND LOCAL CUSTOMS.
THE CELL OF SYNPOLIS IT WILL BE THE CLASSICAL FAMILY ,PLUS THE  MONOGONEICAL  or  SINGLE FAMILY  ,THE LATTER ONE BEING ORGANIZED IN  PRIORY or  BETTER KOINOBIOTIC  STYLING .
THE INTERRELATIONS WHICH ARE GOING TO BE DEVELOPED ,  BETWEEN THE GROUPS AND WAYS OF LIVING,APART FROM THE SYNERGIES WHICH CAN BE OFFERED BY THE TRADITIONAL FUNCTIONS,WILL CREATE A FRUITFUL LIVELY SOCIETY OF CITIZENS,THE METAPOLITES,WHO BY THEIR  PARTICIPATION ,THROUGH DIRECT  DEMOCRATIC  MAINLY SORTING PROCEDURES , IN SYNPOLIS  GOVERNMENTAL BODIES WILL CONTRIBUTE FOR A HARMONIC  AND EFFECTIVE MANAGEMENT BEING CALLED THE “KOINON “,THE COMMON GOOD.
THE JURIDICAL ,EXECUTIVE AND LEGISLATIVE  ENSEMBLES WILL WORK FOR THE BENEFIT OF THE METAPOLITES ,BY THE USE OF MODERN INTELLIGENT  TECHNOLOGIES,WHICH WILL BE UNDER THE  FULL CONTROL OF  CITIZENS BY  ANNUALLY  RENEWED  COMMITTEES.
IN THIS WAY A SECOND SYNPOLIS WILL BE INSTITUTED,THE E-CITY, SERVICING THE METAPOLITES,THROUGH A VIRTUAL ELECTRONIC WORLD,AUGMENTING THE VELOCITY OF DECISIONS,INFORMATION AND DATA MANAGEMENT FOR SEVERAL KINDS OF PRIVATE, PUBLIC OR SECURITY ACTIVITIES .
THE TECHNOLOGIES FOR THE ABOVE  MENTIONED  HAVE  ALREADY BEEN DEVELOPED AND AS THE KNOWLEDGE EXPANDS RAPIDLY,IT IS PRESENTED THE THIRD  3D LEVEL PLATFORM,WHICH UNDER THE STRICT INSPECTION OF  CITIZENS COMMITTEES (REGULARLY CHANGING) ,IS GOING TO TRANSFORM   TOTALLY OUR PERCEPTION FOR TIME AND SPACE.
UNDER THE WISE DEMOCRATIC GOVERNANCE THIS WILL CONSIST THE I-POLIS THIRD LEVEL ENVIRONMENT.
AN IMPORTANT ELEMENT FOR THE HYGIENIC AMBIENT  IN SYNPOLIS ,IS THE “ECONOLOGICAL “WAY OF LIVING.THIS WAY IS NEAR TO WHAT IN PAST CENTURIES  WAS CALLED AN ECONOMIC LIFE AND IT WILL BE ANALYZED FURTHER  ON AT THE APPROPRIATE CHAPTER OF THE PRESENT  ESSAY.
THE SYNPOLIS  BASED ON KOINON,ECONOLOGY  AND TECHNOLOGY,BUT ALSO WITH THE HELP OF THE HOMOSPONDIC RELATIONS BETWEEN NATIONAL STATES,REGIONAL AND LOCAL AUTHORITIES AND THE VALUABLE  CONTRIBUTION OF DEMIOURGOE ,IT COULD   OFFER TO THE CITIZENS THE FOLLOWING FIVE BASIC GOODS AS A STANDARD :

A) HOMES FULLY EQUIPPED WITH THE BASIC INSTALLATIONS READY TO BE CONNECTED WITH THE LATEST ENVIRONMENTAL AND  AUTOMATIC  TECHNOLOGICAL ACHIEVEMENTS.
B)BASIC MINIMUM FOOD NUTRITION FOR ALL PARTICIPATING  METAPOLITES AT THE KOINON  LIFE,BY COMMON SYN-POSIUMS.
C)EDUCATION ON SUCH A LEVEL ,SO THAT FROM THE EARLY CHILDHOOD,FUTURE METAPOLITES AND CITIZENS TO UNDERSTAND THE NATIONAL, ECUMENICAL AND HELIAC ENVIRONMENT OF OUR SPACE CIRCLE.
THE RESPECT TO THE LOCAL AND REGIONAL TRADITIONS PLUS   PRACTICING OF THE NATIONAL DEMOCRATIC VALUES AND ECO FRIENDLY  WAY OF LEARNING,IT WILL BE A MUST FOR THE STANDARD BASIC EDUCATION.
THE MAIN CONCERN OF THE NEW SOCIETY IS THE CONTINUOUS LIFE LEARNING PROCEDURE ,THROUGH THE CENTRAL POSITION WHICH PHILOSOPHERS ,WILL TAKE  OVER IN COMMUNITY’S LIFE.
D)HEALTH SUPPORT.THE OLD TRADITIONAL PROTECTIVE  THERAPIES COMBINED WITH THE BIO-TECHNOLOGICAL ACHIEVEMENTS ,BASED ON PERSONAL TREATMENTS WILL AUGMENT THE  AVERAGE SPAN LIFE OF THE CITIZENS.
THE GREENING URBANIZED  CENTERS OF SUBDIVISIONS FOR EACH SYNPOLIS,WILL BE FULL OF TREES ,WHICH FOR EACH SQUARE METER,WILL, BY FAR,EXCEED THE NUMBER OF THE MACHINES.THEN THE VIBRATING FREQUENCIES OF NATURE WILL HARMONIZE HUMAN’S LIVES  IN THE CIRCLES OF HYGEIA.
E)OCCUPATION FOR EVERYBODY.THIS WILL BE ON A BASIC LEVEL  OR ON AN ADVANCED ONE,APART THE EXO-PLANETIAL  ABILITY ,ACCORDING TO EACH ONES PREFERENCES,SKILLS AND DEDICATION,SO THAT LABOR TO BECOME ERGASIA,MEANING WORK BY THE PRODUCTION OF ERGON.
THE MAIN INSTRUMENT FOR ACHIEVING SUCH AN IDEAL SITUATION WILL BE THE ‘AUTOMATON’,FIRST DESCRIBED BY ARISTOTLE (2) ,WHAT TODAY IT IS  CALLED  ROBOT (FROM THE WORD RABOTA,MEANING  LABOR WORK).
IT IS  WISHED THAT  THE  METAPOLITES,TO WHOM IT IS DEDICATED THIS ESSAY,THE SYNPOLIS AND ZONE SYSTEM GOVERNANCE TYPE,WILL CONTRIBUTE BY FOLLOWING THE MENTIONED DIRECTIONS,TO ORGANIZING SUSTAINABLE SOCIETIES,WHICH ARE WORKING FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A BALANCING HARMONIOUS LIFE ON PLANET G(R)AIA SO THAT THE PRECIOUS IRENE,PEACE,SALAM  TO RULE OUR PLANET.

IN THE UPCOMING EPOCH,
THE RELATION BETWEEN,
NOMINATIVE,DATIVE AND ACCUSATIVE,
WILL BE RE-ESTABLISHED
WITH THE HELP  OF automaton,
BY THE SHARED EXPERIENCES
OF
BE TO  –   GIVE TO –  THANKS TO BE TO
                  outos efa

NOTES
(1).http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cybernetics
(2)ΕΙ ΓΑΡ ΗΔΥΝΑΤΟ ΕΚΑΣΤΟΝ ΤΩΝ ΟΡΓΑΝΩΝ  ΚΕΛΕΥΣΘΕΝ  Η ΠΡΟΑΙΣΘΑΝΟΜΕΝΟΝ
ΑΠΟΤΕΛΕΙΝ ΤΟ ΑΥΤΟΥ ΕΡΓΟΝ  ΩΣΠΕΡ ΤΑ ΔΑΙΔΑΛΟΥ ΦΑΣΙΝ Η ΤΟΥΣ ΤΟΥ ΗΦΑΙΣΤΟΥ ΤΡΙΠΟΔΑΣ  ΟΥΣ ΦΗΣΙΝ Ο ΠΟΙΗΤΗΣ ΑΥΤΟΜΑΤΟΥΣ ΘΕΟΝ ΔΥΕΣΘΑΙ ΑΓΩΝΑ  ΟΥΤΩΣ
ΟΙ ΚΕΡΚΙΔΕΣ ΕΚΕΡΚΙΖΟΝ ΑΥΤΑΙ ΚΑΙ ΤΑ  ΠΛΗΚΤΡΑ  ΕΚΙΘΑΡΙΖΕΝ  ΟΥΔΕΝ ΑΝ ΕΔΕΙ
ΟΥΤΕ ΤΟΙΣ ΑΡΧΙΤΕΚΤΟΣΙΝ  ΥΠΗΡΕΤΩΝ  ΟΥΤE ΤΟΙΣ ΔΕΣΠΟΤΑΙΣ ΔΟΥΛΩΝ.
And every assistant is as it were a tool that serves for several tools; for if every tool could perform its own work when ordered, or by seeing what to do in advance, like the statues of Daedalus in the story,or the tripods of Hephaestus which the poet says ‘enter self-moved the company divine,’—if thus shuttles wove and quills played harps of themselves, master-craftsmen would have no need of assistants and masters no need of slaves.
Aristot. Pol. 1.1253b

SOURCES
PERSEUS PROJECT
PELOPONNESEAN  WAR  – THUCYDIDES
POLITIKA ARISTOTLE BOOK A
EMILE –  J.J ROUSSEAU
EUROPEAN UNION’S
SEVERAL  SCIENTIFIC PAPERS WRITTEN IN 2000-2010

 

 

THE METATECHNICAL physiconomic policies

ΔΙΟ ΔΕΙ ΕΠΕΣΘΑΙ
ΤΩ (ΞΥΝΩ ΤΟΥΤΕΣΤΙ ΤΩ)
ΚΟΙΝΩ ,
ΞΥΝΟΣ ΓΑΡ Ο ΚΟΙΝΟΣ
ΤΟΥ ΛΟΓΟΥ ΔΕ ΕΟΝΤΟΣ ΞΥΝΟΥ
ΖΩΟΥΣΙΝ ΟΙ ΠΟΛΛΟΙ
ΩΣ ΙΔΙΑΝ ΕΧΟΥΣΙΝ ΦΡΟΝΗΣΙΝ(*)
           FRAGMENT2
           [2byw] sextus empiricus
           CONTRE LES MATHEMATICIENES ,VII 133

THE END OF 20th AD,POINTS ALSO THE DECLINE AND SLOW TERMINATION FOR THE INDUSTRIAL PERIOD.DURING THIS ERA THE DEVELOPMENT OF  PRODUCTION OCCURRED MAINLY AT A CITY ENVIRONMENT BEING CHARACTERIZED BY A BRUTAL TECHNOLOGICAL LEVEL.
THE VOLATILE TRANSFORMATION OF THE NATURAL RESOURCES  AND RAW  MATERIALS TO OTHER  ARTIFICIAL  FORMS,PRODUCED AT THE SAME TIME A HUGE AMOUNT OF BYPRODUCTS,NOISE  AND RUBBISH WITH A LOW  RECYCLE INDEX (**) .
THE CONSEQUENCES FOR IMPLEMENTING  SUCH KIND OF ECONOMICAL  MODELS WILL ALWAYS ,DESTABILIZE GAIA’S TRI-AXIAL MOVING CYCLES or FREQUENCIES,WHICH AFFECTS THE  EMBIOUS ENVIRONMENTS BASED AROUND,ON and IN HER.
THE POLITICAL AND ECONOMICAL REFORMS,WHICH HAPPENED FOR THE LAST 2-3 CENTURIES ,AUGMENTED THE PEOPLE’S  LIVING STANDARDS,ENERGY CONSUMPTION ,BIRTH RATES,AND  LIFE SPAN.THIS HAS AS A RESULT  THE INCREASEMENT OF THE  POPULATION.
THE OLIGARCHIC CYCLES BELIEVE THAT THIS IS A DISADVANTAGE,SO THEIR DESIGNED POLICIES ARE BEING PROGRAMMED ON THIS THOUGHT.
ON THE CONTRARY THE ECOUMENIC  BELIEF SEES IT AS A GREAT ADVANTAGE,IF THE INELASTIC    WAYS ABOUT  ENERGY PRODUCTION WILL TURN TO THE NEWLY DISCOVERED CHEAPER,FRIENDLIER TO THE BIO ENVIRONMENTS AND NATURE,TECHNICS AND TECHNOLOGIES.ON THE SAME TIME THE POPULATION’S ORGANIZATIONAL METHODS OBLIGATORY ,OUGHT TO BE CHANGED  TO PURE DEMOCRATIC PROCEDURES,COMBINED WITH SCIENTIFIC INVENTIONS.
THESE  EVOLUTIONS WILL  PRIORITIZE THE EMPOWERMENT OF KNOWLEDGE  TO ALL LEVELS OF THE SYN-POLIS .THEY WILL EXPAND AND ENCOURAGE ,THE SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH IN ORDER NATURE – PHYSIS  TO BE STUDIED SO THAT TO BE PROVEN ,THE ANCIENT PHILOSOPHICAL THEORIES ,WHICH  WERE DESCRIBING THAT  THE MICRO – MACRO KOSMOS  ARE RELATED IN HARMONY.THE TECHNOLOGICAL INSTRUMENTS ARE GOING TO PLAY A SIGNIFICANT ROLE TO THIS EXPLORATION BY OBSERVATION,MEASUREMENT AND EXPERIMENTATION. 
IT IS IN THE  POLITICAL KOINON (COMMUNE) WILL AND ACTIONS  TO  KEEP THE  GEO-ENVIRONMENT’S  BALANCE,SO THAT NATURE TO RETURN TO THE MEANING GIVEN BY THE CHINESE ,WHO ARE DESCRIBING PHYSIS  ALSO  AS  ΠΑΡΑΔΕΙΣΟΣ (***).
THE PROGRESS IN SCIENCE,RESEARCH AND TECHNOLOGY GIVES NEW PERCEPTION FOR OUR RACE,WHICH CAN FLY,LIVE IN EXTREME PLANETARY OR EXO PLANETARY ENVIRONMENTS .WE CAN CREATE AND DEVELOP NEW HOSPITABLE PLACES AT OTHER SOLAR SPHERES  AND SPACE STATIONS ,THROUGH THE KNOWLEDGE OF PLANETOMECHANICS AND PLANETOLOGY BY  UNDERSTANDING  AND RESPECTING THE NEWLY DISCOVERED  PHYSICAL PLANETICAL CYCLES.
IN FRONT OF THE EYES OF ANY PRIMITIVE  LOGIC SPECIE,ALL THE ABOVE MENTIONED WOULD LOOK LIKE A MIRACLE,AND IT  WON’T BE AN EXAGGERATION  TO BE CLAIMED,WHAT ANCIENT GREEKS  BELIEVED,THAT WE ARE MORTAL GODS ,WHEN ANCIENT GODS WERE IMMORTAL HUMANS.
A PHILOSOPHY WHICH  STILL STANDS ,BY THE ” ΚΑΘ’ΕΙΚΟΝΑ ΚΑΙ ΟΜOΙΩΣΗ ” CHRISTIAN VERSE.
THE PERSPECTIVE OF AN ALIVE POLYMORPHIC COSMOS,WHICH USED TO BE COMMON  FOR THE ARCHAIOI (= ANCIENTS ,THE TERM DERIVES FROM THE WORD  ΑΡΧΗ =PRINCIPLE ),IS ARISING
INTO THE NEW AND AT THE SAME TIME ANCIENT MENTALITY WHICH IS BASED ON DEMOS(=PEOPLE) COMMUNICATION AND  IT IS ABOUT:

THE UNITY OF THE HUMAN RACE,BY THE RESPECT OF THE DIVERSITY,RIGHTS AND OBLIGATIONS TOWARDS THE “KOINON”,IN ACCORDANCE TO THE  GEOGRAPHICAL,CLIMATOLOGICAL AND CULTURAL VARIATIONS FOR EACH G(R)AIEAN ZONE.
THE UNITY OF CITIZENS  WISH,IN TRANSFORMING ANY PLANETARY ENVIRONMENT IN A HABITABLE PLACE,BY RESPECTING THE NATURE AND AVOIDING ANY  ARTIFICIAL VIOLENT USE OF ENERGY,ACTIVITY,VIBRATION.
THE PURE DEMOCRACY THROUGH ITS SORTING MAINLY AND ELECTORAL METHODS GUARANTIES THE  PEACEFUL RESOLVEMENT  OF ANY ARISEN DISPUTES.
THE UNITY OF THE PHYSIS NOMOS(=LAW),LOGOS (=RATIO,REASON,TRUTH), TO AN   ATOMIC AND SUB ATOMIC LEVEL,AT A QUANTUM PERSPECTIVE,IS THE PATH FOR THE ΧΩΡΟ-ΧΡΟΝΟΣ(=TIME-SPACE).  THIS  SCIENTIFIC UNDERSTANDING  IT IS BASED ON THE AXIOM THAT :

“chronos is the move of each consciousness from one event to another “

THE NEW SCIENTIFIC APPROACH ,WILL STEP ON  GNOOSIS TRANSMISSION,SHARING AND ETHOS(=MORALITY) .IT WILL BE ONE OF  THE BASIC TOOLS ,INSIDE THE PURE DEMOCRACY’S INSTITUTIONS ,APART THOSE OF VARIOUS RELIGIONS AND ARTS.
THIS SCIENCE  WILL GUIDE THE CITIZENS  IN ORDER TO  EDUCATE THEM, TOWARDS THE DIRECTION FOR A PROPER SELF-UNDERSTANDING LEVEL (KNOW THYSELF,ΓΝΩΘΙ ΣΕΑΥΤΟΝ),FOR THE UNIFICATION,CREATION,SUSTAINABILITY  OF THE COMMON  MULTIPOLAR CONSCIOUS IN HARMONY.
THROUGH THE NETWORK CONNECTIVITY AND PRIVACY RESPECT,EVERYTHING HAS BECOME AN INFORMATION,DATA,LIBRARY  READY TO BE USED BY NOUS,MIND,DIANOIA  FOR  SHARING,EXCHANGE,DISCUSS,CREATE,ORGANIZE,COOPERATE,MAKE  THE THINGS HAPPEN.
IT IS JUST  THEN TO BE NAMED THIS METALUCEAN EPOC AS A PLERINFORMAL ERA TOO.

We hold these truths to be self-evident, that all men are created equal; that they are endowed by their Creator with inherent and inalienable Rights; that among these, are Life, Liberty, and the pursuit of Happiness; that to secure these rights, Governments are instituted among Men, deriving their just powers from the consent of the governed; that whenever any Form of Government becomes destructive of these ends, it is the Right of the people to alter or abolish it, and to institute new Government, laying its foundation on such principles, and organizing its powers in such form, as to them shall seem most likely to effect their Safety and Happiness.
DECLARATION OF INDEPENDENCE (1776)
Tomas  Jefferson

THE POLITICAL FRAMEWORK IN WHICH THIS  DYNAMIC  TRIANGLE,SCIENCES,RELIGIONS,ARTS,OUGHT TO  OPERATE ,IS THE THREE LEVELED CIRCULAR DEMOCRATIC ORGANIZATION ,INSIDE  SYN-POLIS DECISION MAKING BODIES (THE REAL – VIRTUAL – AND ICONIC POLIS).
THE SAME CYCLES COULD BE  IMPLEMENTED  APART  FROM THE  LOCAL ECOSYSTEM ,ALSO AT A REGIONAL,NATIONAL AND HOMOSPONDICAL ONE,IN ACCORDANCE TO THE VARIOUS PECULIARITIES FOR EACH ONE OF THE TEN ZONES , AS IT IS DESCRIBED AT THE politikal logos PREVIOUS  CHAPTER.
ECONOLOGICAL SCIENCE (ECONOMY- ECODYNAMICS- BENCHMARKING) WILL OFFER THE APPROPRIATE LOGIC,LAWS AND MOTIVES IN ORDER ALL THE SYSTEM TO BE FINANCED ACCORDINGLY TO THE “KOINON” BENEFIT,BY BALANCING THE INTERRELATION BETWEEN PUBLIC,COMMUNITIES AND PRIVATE SECTORS .
THE POLITICAL  LOGOS  FOR EACH COMMUNITY,PEOPLE,SOCIETY,CITIZENS,METAPOLITANS  SHOULD HAVE AS   A MAIN PARADIGM ,THE FOOTPRINT  ON THE PLANET,WHICH CAN BE REFLECTED,IMPRINTED ,BUILT, BY OBSERVING  THE SKY SOCIETY or  ΤΗΕ URANIAN POLIS(cosmopolis)  OF STARS CLUSTERS  AND PLANETS ,AS THE STOICS  WISELY DESCRIBED.

THE DEMOS KRATOS  IS THE ONLY STATE
WHICH BY ORGANIZING COMMON LIFE,
ASSISTS ANOO-THROOPOI
TO RAISE THEIR HEADS TOWARDS THE SKIES,
IN ORDER TO BE EXPLORED
THE ETERNAL REQUESTS:
WHO WE ARE
WHAT WE SERVE
WHERE ARE WE  COMING FROM
AND GOING FOR ???
outos epha

NOTES
(*)so we must follow the common because communion is the common.even though wisdom is common,yet the many live ,as if they had an wisdom of their own
(**)this is an index that is the ratio of the total mass of the wastes which were technically created versus the mass of the renewed – recycled – disoluted in the time.
(***) Heaven is a key concept in Chinese mythology, philosophies and religions, and is on one end of the spectrum a synonym of Shangdi (“Supreme Deity”) and on the other naturalistic end, a synonym for nature and the sky.
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Heaven
SOURCES

The Enchiridion by Epictetus and George Long

COSMOS BY CARL SAGAN 

History and revolution: A revolutionary critique of historical materialism, (Solidarity pamphlet) by Cornelius Castoriadisand Paul Cardan (1971)
La société bureaucratique, 1 (Les rapports de production en Russie) by Cornelius Castoriadis (1973)

EUROPEAN UNION’S
SEVERAL  SCIENTIFIC PAPERS WRITTEN IN 2000-2011
THE ABOVE WRITTEN  ESSAY IT IS DEDICATED TO THE ECOUMENIC WOMEN OR WOMEN OF THE G(R)AIEA

 

 

 

from political economy to demoikonomy(4)

[64] ΟΥΤΕ ΟΙ ΕΜΟΙ ΘΕΣΜΟΙ ΑΘΗΝΑΙΟΥΣ
          ΕΠΙ ΠΟΛΥ ΟΝΗΣΕΙΝ ΕΜΕΛΛΟΝ
          ΜΕΤΑ ΟΥΤΕ ΣΥ ΚΑΘΗΡΑΣ ΤΗΝ ΠΟΛΙΝ ΩΝΗΣΑΣ.
          ΤΟ ΤΕ ΓΑΡ ΘΕΙΟΝ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΝΟΜΟΘΕΤΑΙ
          ΟΥ ΚΑΘ’ ΕΑΥΤΑ ΔΥΝΑΝΤΑΙ ΟΝΗΣΑΙ ΤΑΣ ΠΟΛΕΙΣ,
          ΟΙ ΔΕ ΑΕΙ ΤΟ ΠΛΗΘΟΣ ΑΓΟΝΤΕΣ
          ΟΠΩΣ ΑΝ ΓΝΩΜΗΣ ΕΧΩΣΙΝ.
          ΟΥΤΩ ΔΕ ΚΑΙ ΤΟ ΘΕΙΟΝ ΚΑΙ ΟΙ ΝΟΜΟΙ,
          ΕΥ ΜΕΝ ΑΓΟΝΤΩΝ,ΕΙΣΙΝ ΩΦΕΛΙΜΟΙ,
          ΚΑΚΩΣ ΔΕ ΑΓΟΝΤΩΝ ΟΥΔΕΝ ΩΦΕΛΟΥΣΙΝ.
DIOGENE LAERTE
                          “VIES ET DOCTRINES DES PHILOSOPHES
                                               DE L’ANTIQUITE”
LIVRE I – CHII -SOLON

THE POLITICO-PHILOSOPHICAL  CONCEPT  OF THIS ESSAY ,WHICH IS CLOSING THE MAIN POLITICAL PERCEPTION FOR THE CURRENT  CHAPTER IS THE Demos AND ITS ECONOMIES.
THE CITIZENS ,WHO BY THE TECHNOLOGY’S USE WILL BECOME  METAPOLITANS,MEANING THAT THOSE  CITIZENS WHO ARE GOING TO WORK ACTIVELY INSIDE THE SOCIETY,AT THE FIELDS OF ARTS AND POPULAR  SCIENCES-KNOWLEDGE,ECO DEMOCRACY,LIFE LEARNING EXPERIENCE,BEING   EMPOWERED BY THE ANCIENT VIRTUES OF LOVE ,EGKRATEIA AND  ETHOS,WILL BE THE GUIDERS FOR THE SOCIETAL  DEVELOPMENT TOGETHER WITH  DEMIOURGOE,THE PHILOSOPHERS,THE SCIENTISTS  AND CITIZENS ASSEMBLIES.
THIS IDEA WILL BE THE BASE AND THE CREATION FOR ANY ECONOMIC INTERESTS,SOCIETAL RELATIONS AND  ENVIRONMENTAL ,FISCAL PLUS GOVERNMENTAL  RESULTS.
THE POLITICAL ECONOMY(1)  SCIENCE ,WHICH  APPEARED  FOR THE FIRST TIME AT FRANCE BY THE BOOK “TRAITE DE L’ECONOMIE POLITIQUE” BY ANTOINE MONTCHRETIEN,ΑΤ 1615,HAS ACCOMPLISHED ITS MISSION,EVEN IF IT IS CALLED AS ECONOMICS,BY A LATER TERMINOLOGY TRANSFORMATION.
THIS “ECONOMIE POLITIQUE” POINT OF VIEW ENDED ITS CIRCLE ,BECAUSE IT IS GUIDING THROUGH DIFFERENT  THEORIES THE HUMAN COMMUNITIES TO AN AUGMENTED INDIVIDUALISM (ΙΔΙΩΤΕΙΑ) AND CLASSES EGOISM,WHICH BY ITS TURN IS PROVOKING GREEDINESS OUT OF THE GOLDEN METER,OLIGARCHIC DECISIONS AND  TYRANNIC BEHAVIOURS.
IN OTHER WORDS CORRUPTION,SEPARATION,AGGRESSIVE IDEAS WHICH DON’T ASSIST FOR THE ESTABLISHMENT OF A HARMONIOUS DEMOS,WHICH IS WORKING FOR THE SOCIAL BENEFIT AND BALANCE.
THE BRUTAL POLITICAL ENVIRONMENTS ,WHICH ARE BEING CREATED BY FOLLOWING THE ABOVE MENTIONED POLICIES , EITHER IN NATURAL OR IN  CONTINUAL QUICK INTERACTIONS (WHICH ARE CREATING AN ANCIENT DISEASE FIRST MENTIONED BY HIPPOCRATES ,ΤΟ ΑΓΧΟΣ) OR IN OTHER WORDS PRESSURE CONDITIONS, STRESS,BETWEEN VARIOUS LIFE FORMS  HAVE AS  CONSEQUENCES  THE MINIMIZING OF BIODIVERSITY ,THE ELIMINATION OF NATURAL RESOURCES AND  THE DOWNFALL OF THE PHYSICAL  FREQUENCIES WHICH ARE CONSERVING THE ENBIOUS SPECIES ON THE PLANET,BUT NOT ONLY.
THIS IS AGAINST THE NOMOS OF OUR COMMON OIKOS,AGAINST THE ECO-NOMY.
THE PROOF IS  THE CLIMATE CHANGE,THE SUDDEN DEATHS WITHOUT REASONS FOR MILLIONS OF  ANIMALS,DURING THE LAST 40-50 YEARS,THE GROSS AUGMENTATION OF ARTIFICIAL UNNATURAL  RUBBISH ETC ,BUT ALSO THROUGH THOUSANDS OF SCIENTIFIC PAPERS WHICH EXAMINE ALL ASPECTS OF THIS CATASTROPHIC DECLINE FOR THE HUMAN CIVILIZATION AND  EACH ONE’S PERSONAL HYGEIA.
THE DEMOIKONOMY IS GOING TO BE BASED ,AS THIS IS NATURAL ,TO THE POLITICAL ECONOMY THEORIES ,BY ADDING NEW ASPECTS AND SCIENCES THROUGH THE MULTIFUNCTIONAL STAGES  OF A  WORKING DEMOCRACY ,IN REAL ,VIRTUAL/ELECTRONIC AND ICONIC PARTICIPATORY LEVELS.
THE METAPOLITANS AND CITIZENS PARTICIPATION TO A FIVE DIMENSIONAL HORIZONTAL SCHEMES  (2) PLUS THE THREE DIMENSIONAL VERTICAL ONES IN CYCLES MOVEMENTS ,OUGHT TO  BIRTH AND NOURISH  THE APPROPRIATE  DYNAMISM (DYNAMIC ABILITY)  FOR AN ECONOLOGICAL DEVELOPMENT ,AS IT WILL BE EXPLAINED  TO THE THIRD  CHAPTER AND LAST PART OF THE PRESENT PONEMA.
IN THIS WAY THE POLITICAL DECISIONS ,BASED ON THE NEW SYSTEM ,MIGHT  WORK,OFFER AND GUIDE THE VARIOUS ZONES COMMUNITIES AND  KOINA TO PROSPERITY,HARMONY,SUSTAINABILITY  AND RESPECT TO G(R)AIA’S ECO MOVEMENTS AND WAVES.

AND HENCE IT IS THAT HE WHO ATTEMPTS 
        TO GET ANOTHER MAN INTO HIS ABSOLUTE POWER
        DOES THEREBY PUT HIMSELF INTO A STATE OF WAR WITH HIM;

        IT BEING TO BE UNDERSTOOD AS A DECLARATION
        OF A DESIGN UPON HIS LIFE.
        FOR I HAVE   A REASON TO CONCLUDE 
        THAT HE  WHO WOULD GET ME  INTO HIS POWER
        WITHOUT MY CONSENT WOULD USE ME
        AS HE PLEASED WHEN HE HAD GOT ME THERE,
        AND DESTROY ME TOO WHEN HE HAD A FANCY TO IT;
        FOR NOBODY CAN DESIRE TO HAVE ME
        IN HIS ABSOLUTE POWER   UNLESS IT BE COMPEL ME
        BY FORCE TO THAT WHICH IS AGAINST
        THE RIGHT OF MY FREEDOM ie.MAKE ME A SLAVE.

       TO BE FREE FROM SUCH FORCE IS THE ONLY SECURITY
       OF MY PRESERVATION AND REASON  BIDS ME
       LOOK ON HIM AS AN ENEMY TO MY PRESERVATION
       WHO WOULD TAKE AWAY THAT
       FREEDOM  WHICH IS THE FENCE TO IT;
       SO THAT HE WHO MAKES AN ATTEMPT TO ENSLAVE ME
       THEREBY PUTS HIMSELF INTO A STATE OF  WAR WITH ME.
       HE THAT IN THE STATE OF NATURE WOULD TAKE AWAY
       THE FREEDOM THAT BELONGS TO ANYONE
       IN THAT STATE MUST  NECESSARILY BE SUPPOSED
       TO HAVE A DESIGN TO TAKE AWAY EVERYTHING  ELSE, 
       THAT FREEDOM BEING THE FOUNDATION OF ALL THE REST;
       AS HE THAT IN THE STATE OF SOCIETY
       WOULD TAKE AWAY THE FREEDOM BELONGING 
       TO THOSE OF THAT SOCIETY  OR COMMONWEALTH
       MUST BE SUPPOSED TO DESIGN TO TAKE AWAY
       FROM THEM EVERYTHING ELSE,AND SO BE LOOKED
       ON AS IN A STATE OF WAR.
                             JOHN LOCK
     “TWO TREATISES ON GOVERNMENT ” 1680-90
                            CH2 &19      
 

THE  IDEAS OF J.LOCK ABOUT GOVERNANCE,NATURE AND PROPERTY,IN A MORE OR LESS WAY HAVE BEEN ACCOMPLISHED THROUGH THE IDEAS AND POLICIES  WHICH WERE FOLLOWED FOR THE LATEST  3-4 CENTURIES.
HOWEVER EVEN IF HIS PERCEPTION FOR LIBERTY,EQUALITY,PROPERTY IS ALWAYS AT THE FRONT LINES OF CITIZENS PRINCIPLES,WHAT  SHOULD  BE DONE IS TO PROCEED FURTHER ON ,OVERCOMING THE INDIVIDUAL’S (=IDIOOTES,IDIOTS TERMS USED BY ATHENIAN DEMOCRACY FOR THOSE WHO WEREN’T PARTICIPATING TO THE DEMOS AFFAIRS),NATURAL LAWS.
THE PRIVATE PROPERTY  WILL BE COMBINED,BY KEEPING ITS AUTONOMY, WITH THE DEMOS, VARIOUS COMMUNITIES  PROPERTIES AND JURISDICTION,BY BEING ORGANIZED THE STATE OF NATURE INSIDE THIS KOINON UNDER  THE METER “ENOUGH  AND AS GOOD”,IN ACCORDANCE TO THE NEEDS AND   HARMONIOUS  EXCEPTIONS.
THE  POLITICAL SCIENCE OF THE NEW ERA  WILL BE BASED ON EDUCATION,LIFE PRACTICES,PROFESSIONAL EXPERIENCES , IN ORDER TO BE ACHIEVED,A HIGH LEVEL OF MORALS/ETHICS  AND VIRTUES/ARETES.
THEN THE METAPOLITANS,CITIZENS CONSCIOUS  WOULD BE TRANSMITTED INSIDE THE FIVE HORIZONTAL AND THE THREE VERTICAL GROUPS,BY THEIR PARTICIPATION AND WORK THROUGH  THE DEMOS ASSEMBLIES.
EΓKRATEIA  VIRTUE IT MAY BE THE IDEAL FOR THE KOINON,SO THAT ECONOLOGY TO FOLLOW NATURAL METERS,DEPENDING ON GEO-ECONOMIC STRATEGIC PARAMETERS AND TO BE IN THE POSITION TO OFFER TO ALL ACCORDING TO THEIR NEEDS,CAPABILITIES AND TO THE  COMMUNITIES  THE  METER OF COEXISTING PEACEFULLY  TOGETHER WITH OTHER REGIONAL,NATIONAL,ZONE AND INTERNATIONAL GROUPS OF PEOPLE.
THE UNI-VERSITIES BY INTRODUCING IN  THEIR LESSONS,PRACTICES AND EDUCATIONAL METHODS FOR DEEPER GNOOSIS,THEY SHOULD BECOME  DISTRIBUTORS,ALLOCATORS,DONORS FOR ALL (=PAN) ,  OVER(EPI) THE KNOW HOW(=HISTEEMI)  CONCERNING SCIENCES AND ARTS,TURNING INTO ΠΑΝ-ΕΠΙ-ΙΣΤΗΜΙΑ THEIR INSTITUTIONAL STATUS.
AROUND THESE CENTRES OF SCIENCE AND UNDER THEIR  GUIDANCE,BIBLIOTHEQUES,INSTITUTES,LABORATORIUMS,ATELIERS,ART CENTERS, NON PROFITABLE AND PROFITABLE ORGANIZATIONS,WILL  FLOURISH  AND ORGANIZE THE LOCAL EDUCATIONAL METHODS FOR PREPARING THE CITIZENS/POLITES FOR  THE  SOCIETY AND  NEW EPOCH.
AT THE SAME TIME SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH,AND ITS IMPLEMENTATION THROUGH THE LATEST ACHIEVEMENTS AND DISCOVERIES MAY ASSIST THE WORK OF DEMIORGOE AND DIFFERENT TYPES OF ENTERPRISES,FOR CONTRIBUTING TOWARDS TO  THE BENEFIT FOR ALL.
A GOOD PARADIGM CAN BE GIVEN BY  THE SPACE RESEARCH ON  EXPLORATION MATTERS ,WHICH TODAY OFFERS NEW FACILITIES,TO  EARTHEN DAILY LIFE.
THE SECTION OF THE  INDUSTRY,WILL BE TRANSFORMED THROUGH THE AUTOMATA(=ROBOTS)  TO A META-INDUSTRIAL SECTOR,WHICH IT IS PROPOSED TO BE NAMED AS BIOMECHANICAL ONE.
THIS NEW APPROACH ,BY TECHNOLOGY’S ASSISTANCE, THROUGH THE SYNERGIES WITH THE POLIS AND ITS STRUCTURES WILL AUGMENT THE NEW  DEM-O-IKO-NOMIC POTENTIALS .
THE LEADERS ,THE METAPOLITANS AND THE PHILOSOPHERS-ELDERS ,WHO WITH THEIR THEORETICAL AND PRACTICAL WISDOM  WILL ADVISE THE KOINON,TOGETHER WITH VARIOUS ARTISTIC,TECHNOLOGICAL,RELIGIOUS-SPIRITUAL  AND POLITICAL ORGANIZATIONS ,BUT MAINLY THROUGH DEMOS POWERS,TOOLS AND SORTING PROCEDURES.
AS A RESULT MIGHT BE THAT  THE LAWS,THE ADMINISTRATIVE ISSUES AND THE ECONOLOCICAL POLICIES TO OPERATE  PROPERLY UNDER  THE ORDER OF JUSTICE,  PEACE AND HARMONY.
THE TOMORROW SCIENCE OF POLITICS  OUGHT TO BE THE POLITICS OF PHILOSOPHICAL-SPIRITUAL MINDS (3)  STRONGLY  CONNECTED  WITH CITIZENS VARIOUS  ASSEMBLIES.
THE NEW SCIENCES OF DEMOIKONOMIES AND ECONOLOGY ,WOULD BE STUDIED AND ANALYZED INTO THREE SPHERES OF KNOWLEDGE , IN ECONOMICS ,ECODYNAMICS AND ECOLOGY.
THE DEMOIKONOMICS SHOULD ANALYZE  THE CRUCIAL ROLE OF ELECTIONS AND SORTING PROCEDURES AT A MACRO AND MICRO ECONOLOGIC ENVIRONMENTS,COMBINING THE STUDIES  FOR VARIOUS GOVERNANCE DEMOCRATIC TYPES,WITH THE  ASSISTANCE OF E-GOVERNANCE AND I-GOVERNANCE AND  IN ANALOGY WITH THE PREVIOUS DESCRIPTIONS.
THE CONTRIBUTION OF THE HUMANITIES SCIENTIFIC APPROACH,THROUGH THE CLASSICAL SCHOOLS ,SOCIOLOGY,PSYCHOLOGY,COMMUNICATIONS AND OTHER ART AND CULTURAL STUDIES IS VERY CRUCIAL TO THIS ANALYTIC-SYNTHETICAL DIALECTIC THINKING.
THE OLDER AND NEW POLITICAL ECONOMY THEORIES OF NOWADAYS,CANNOT EXAMINE WELL ,IN WHAT WAYS THE POLITICAL FORCES AFFECT THE CHOICE OF POLICIES ,BECAUSE THEY ARE LIMITED ,BY BEING BASED IN OLIGARCHIC REPRESENTATIVE IDEAS AND STRICT MATHEMATICAL ECONOMIC MODELS WHICH HAVE DEMOCRATIC ELEMENTS,BUT NOT THE INNOVATIVE,PLURALITY  AND JOY OF A DEMOS-KRATOS WAYS.
THE WAYS OF ANOO-THROOPOI/ΑΝΘΡΩΠΟΙ

ἕλɛγέ τɛ τοὺς μεν  ἄλλους ἀνθρὼπους ζῇν ἵν’ ἐσθίοίɛν;
αὐτὸς δε ἐσθὶɛίν ἵνα ζῴη
SOCRATES

THE LIVES AND OPINIONS OF EMINENT PHILOSOPHERS

XVI.

by diogenes laertius

THE REFORMS WHICH ARE GOING TO BE FOLLOWED BY THIS SCIENTIFIC-ECONOLOGICAL DEMOCRATIC EVOLUTION,SHOULD CREATE COLOURFUL ZONES,NATIONS,REGIONS AND LOCAL COMMUNITIES,IN EVERY ASPECT OF LIFE,BY CONSERVING AT THE SAME TIME THE MONOCHROME OF THE OLD STATE- COMMUNISTICOCAPITALISTIC SYSTEM  IN LANDS WHERE THEIR VIVIFYING ASSEMBLIES WILL DECIDE SO,BECAUSE COEXISTENCE IS A BASIC DEMOCRATIC ELEMENT,GIVEN BY THE GLORY OF PHYSIS TO ITS INHABITANTS ON THE  DIA-KOSMOS MADE BY ΘEUS.

THE COLOURS,THE WAVES,THE ELIXIS OF LIFE,
THE ICON OF THE photons FANTASY,
MAKE THE JOY OF THE NOMOS,
INSIDE EACH ONES ECOS,
SO DEMOS TO LIVE AGAIN .
outos efa

 

NOTES
(1) THE WORD economy DERIVES FROM THE ALEKSANDRIAN -IONIAN/ATTIC  HELLENIC DIALECT,oikos WHICH MEANS HOUSE AND  nomos WHICH IS MEANING LAW.
THE OTHER WORD POLITICAL  DERIVES FROM POLITICS,POLICY,ΠΟΛΙΤΙΚΗ, POLITIE (ΠΟΛΙΤΕΙΑΙ) ,EVENTUALLY FROM polis,POLE.
(2)SOCIETAL,LOCAL,REGIONAL,NATIONAL,ZONAL GROUPS
(3) https://spacezilotes.wordpress.com/2011/09/10/a-new-ancient-solution-the-hellenic/
(4)THIS THIRD ESSAY IS CONTINUING THE WORK FROM THE POLITICAL PRESENTATION OF THE THEORY,BY BEING THE LAST ONE.THE PREVIOUS TWO ARE AS FOLLOWING
POLITICAL  TREATISE ON THE SYNPOLIS AND THE META-CITIZENS GOVERNANCE  and 
THE METATECHNICAL physiconomic policies.THESE THREE ESSAYS ARE CONCLUDING  THE SECOND CHAPTER UNDER THE  TITLE “the political logos”.
REFERENCES
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_philosophy
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_economy
https://spacezilotes.wordpress.com/category/ideologic-matters/
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Political_science
ΑΡΙΣΤΟΤΕΛΕΣ ΟΙΚΟΝΟΜΙΚΑ

H ΑΝΩΤΕΡΩ ΕΡΓΑΣΙΑ ΑΦΙΕΡΟΥΤΑΙ ΕΣ ΤΟΥΣ ΗΜΕΤΕΡΟΥΣ ΓΟΝΕΑΣ.

 

(TO BE CONTINUED)

© AΓΓΕΛΟΣ ΧΑΡΛΑΥΤΗΣ

FIRST  TEXTS  BEGAN TO BE WRITTEN BEGINNING OF 2009

SOURCE  http://feraios.blogspot.com

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ΣΤΑΣΙΣ / ΑΝΑ-ΣΤΑΣΙΣ / ΕΝ-ΣΤΑΣΙΣ

Ο ΣΥΜΒΟΛΙΣΜΟΣ ΤΟΥ ΘΑΝΑΤΟΥ ΚΑΙ ΤΗΣ ΑΝΑΣΤΑΣΗΣ

Σε όλες σχεδόν τις θρησκείες, ως γνωστόν, ο κεντρικός τους ήρωας πεθαίνει και κατόπιν ανασταίνεται κατά την εαρινή ισημερία π.χ. ο Καδμίλος των Καβείρων, ο Άδωνις των Φοινίκων, ο Κρίσνα των Ινδουιστών, ο Διόνυσος στην Ελληνική θρησκεία και ο Ιησούς στην Χριστιανική Θρησκεία. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι αυτός ο Θάνατος και η εν συνεχεία Ανάσταση έχουν κάποια κρυμμένη σημασία και συμβολίζουν κάτι βαθύτερο που μόνον οι βαθειά μυημένοι καταλαβαίνουν ενώ οι αμύητοι το θεωρούν ως απλό ιστορικό γεγονός. Επίσης είναι αξιοπρόσεκτο ότι ο θάνατος του κεντρικού ήρωα είναι πάντα οδυνηρός.

Στον χριστιανισμό, η αλληγορική εικόνα του ΘΑΝΑΤΟΥ και της εν συνεχεία ΑΝΑΣΤΑΣΕΩΣ εμφανίζεται με τον οδυνηρό σταυρικό θάνατο του Ιησού και ακολούθως την ανάστασή του. Ο θάνατος και εν συνεχεία η ανάσταση του Ιησού δεν τιμάται από τον χριστιανισμό σε κάποια συγκεκριμένη ημερομηνία, όπως θα έπρεπε να γίνει αν επρόκειτο για ένα ιστορικό γεγονός αλλά κατά την πρώτη Κυριακή μετά την πρώτη πανσέληνο της εαρινής ισημερίας. Εδώ έχει ιδιαίτερη σημασία να επισημανθεί ότι έχει συνδυαστεί με τα αστρονομικά γεγονότα της εαρινής ισημερίας του Ηλίου και την πρώτη πανσέληνο μετά την εαρινή ισημερία. Επίσης η σχετική παράδοση αναφέρει επίσης ότι ο Ιησούς μετά την ανάστασή του παραμένει στο γήινο επίπεδο και εμφανίζεται συχνά στους μαθητές του επί 40 ημέρες και κατόπιν έχουμε την ΑΝΑΛΗΨΗ του και την απομάκρυνσή του από το γήινο επίπεδο και η οποία γίνεται λίγο πριν από την θερινή τροπή του Ηλίου. Και για να τα συνοψίσουμε έχουμε: θάνατο, ανάσταση (κατά την εαρινή ισημερία και μάλιστα μετά την πρώτη πανσέληνο) και ανάληψη κατά την θερινή τροπή του Ηλίου.

Για να κατανοήσουμε καλύτερα το θέμα του θανάτου, της ανάστασης και της ανάληψης που αποτελούν το επίκεντρο του χριστιανισμού θα προσφύγουμε στην Ελληνική παράδοση. Στην Ελληνική παράδοση έχουμε τους πλέον αποκαλυπτικούς συμβολισμούς σχετικά με τον θάνατο και την ανάσταση που συμβαίνουν κατά την εαρινή ισημερία ως και την ανάληψη που λαμβάνει χώρα κατά την θερινή τροπή του Ηλίου. Επίσης με βάση την Ελληνική παράδοση θα εξετάσουμε την ιδιαίτερη σημασία της πρώτης πανσελήνου.

Ο ΣΥΜΒΟΛΙΣΜΟΣ ΤΗΣ ΕΑΡΙΝΗΣ ΙΣΗΜΕΡΙΑΣ.

ΣΤΑ ΟΡΦΙΚΑ ΜΥΣΤΗΡΙΑ κατά την εαρινή ισημερία συνέβαινε ο θάνατος του Διονύσου του Ζαγρέως ο οποίος κατασπαράζεται από τους Τιτάνες. Αυτό σημαίνει ότι ο Διόνυσος πεθαίνει με έναν οδυνηρό θάνατο (όπως ο Ιησούς). Όμως παρεμβαίνει η Θεά Αθηνά (δηλαδή το σοφό πνεύμα) και σώζει την καρδιά του, η οποία θεωρείται ως η έδρα της ψυχής του και την τοποθετεί στην κνήμη του πατρός της Διός όπου κυοφορείται και κατόπιν γεννάται εκ νέου αλλά τώρα από την φύση του Ολυμπίου Διός (δηλαδή του υπάτου πνεύματος του ηλιακού μας συστήματος), ως Διόνυσος ο Άνθιος, ο οποίος κατόπιν μεταμορφώνεται στον Διόνυσο τον Ελευθερέα.

Ο συμβολισμός αυτός των ορφικών δείχνει ότι ο Διόνυσος ο Ζαγρεύς πεθαίνει ως χθόνια θεότητα (του γήινου επιπέδου) και κατόπινανασταίνεται ως Διόνυσος ο Ελευθερέας δηλαδή ως ελευθερωτής των ανθρωπίνων ψυχών εκ των δεσμών της ύλης και της εν γένει υλοβαρούς τους φύσεως που τώρα είναι ουράνια θεότητα. Ο θάνατος του Διόνυσου του Ζαγρέα συμβολίζει, κατά την ελληνική παράδοση, τον θάνατο της τιτανικής του φύσεως. Τιτανική φύση έχει κάθε οντότητα που βρίσκεται στο ανθρώπινο επίπεδο και έχει πάθη και γενικά ελαττώματα και κακίες συνεπώς θάνατος της τιτανικής φύσεως του ανθρώπου είναι ο θάνατος των παθών του δηλαδή η αποβολή των ελαττωμάτων του. Κατόπιν ανασταίνεται και μεταμορφώνεται σε ουράνια θεότητα, τον Διόνυσο τον Ελευθερέα.

ΣΤΑ ΕΛΕΥΣΙΝΙΑ ΜΥΣΤΗΡΙΑ η εαρινή ισημερία συμβολιζόταν με την απελευθέρωση της Περσεφόνης από το βασίλειο του Πλούτωνα (δηλαδή την ανάστασή της από το βασίλειο του Πλούτωνα). Την απελευθέρωσή της την πραγματοποιεί ο Διόνυσος ο Ελευθερέας (που είναι πλέον ουράνια θεότητα), ο οποίος την μεταφέρει στον Όλυμπο (δηλαδή την ανάληψή της στα ουράνια επίπεδα) όπου η Περσεφόνη μεταμορφώνεται και αυτή σε ουράνια θεότητα.

Ο συμβολισμός αυτός των Ελευσίνιων μυστηρίων, δείχνει και την περαιτέρω δράση των πνευματικών οντοτήτων. Επίσης θεωρούσαν ότι η εαρινή ισημερία αντιπροσωπεύει τον θάνατο της τιτανικής φύσεως των ανθρωπίνων ψυχών και την μεταμόρφωσή και την αναγέννησή της στις πνευματικές φύσεις του πνευματικού κόσμου με την απόκτηση της αιωνίας ζωής δηλαδή ζωής η οποία δεν διέρχεται δια της διαδικασίας του θανάτου και της εκ νέου ενσαρκώσεώς της και συνεπώς ζωής η οποία έχει εξασφαλίσει την αιωνιότητα. Τελούσαν (κατά την εαρινή ισημερία) την γιορτή των Παναθηναίων, ενώ παράλληλα γινόντουσαν και εσωτερικές τελετές που όμως δεν μας είναι γνωστές.

Ο ΣΥΜΒΟΛΙΣΜΟΣ ΤΗΣ ΠΡΩΤΗΣ ΠΑΝΣΕΛΗΝΟΥ ΜΕΤΑ ΤΗΝ ΕΑΡΙΝΗ ΙΣΗΜΕΡΙΑ.

Από την πρώτη πανσέληνο της εαρινής ισημερίας, σύμφωνα με την ελληνική παράδοση, αρχίζει η κυριαρχία της Θεάς Αθηνάς δηλαδή του σοφού πνεύματος και στα ελληνικά μυστήρια εορτάζεται αυτό το γεγονός γιατί αποτελεί την εκδήλωση του πέμπτου ιερού δράματος της εξελικτικής πορείας της Φύσεως.

Το πέμπτο ιερό δράμα της εξελικτικής πορείας της Φύσεως εκδηλώνεται στην ψυχή εκείνη η οποία απαλλάχθηκε οριστικά από όλα της τα πάθη (ΘΑΝΑΤΟΣ παθών) και αυτό έχει ως αποτέλεσμα την πνευματική αναγέννηση της ψυχής (ΑΝΑΣΤΑΣΗ της ως νέας χωρίς πάθη οντότητας). Αποτέλεσμα αυτού είναι η ψυχική αυτή οντότητα να επιτύχει την κατάκτηση της ΣΟΦΙΑΣ (κυριαρχία της Θεάς Αθηνάς). Η σοφία θα επιτρέψει στον μύστη, ο οποίος απαλλάχθηκε από τα πάθη του, να έλθει σε επικοινωνία με τον Ουρανό και να αποκτήσει τα μεταμορφωτικά εκείνα μέσα που θα του επιτρέψουν να αποκτήσει τον πνευματικό του οργανισμό, ώστε να έχει την δυνατότητα να οδεύσει στους χώρους του ανέσπερου φωτός.

Ο ΣΥΜΒΟΛΙΣΜΟΣ ΤΗΣ ΠΕΡΙΟΔΟΥ ΑΠΟ ΤΗΝ ΕΑΡΙΝΗ ΙΣΗΜΕΡΙΑ ΜΕΧΡΙ ΤΗΝ ΘΕΡΙΝΗ ΤΡΟΠΗ ΤΟΥ ΗΛΙΟΥ.

Στα Ορφικά μυστήρια η τρίτη μύηση λάμβανε χώρα κατά την εαρινή ισημερία του Ήλιου. Ο χρόνος από της μυήσεως αυτής μέχρι την επομένη μύηση που ελάμβανε χώρα κατά την θερινή τροπή του Ήλιου ήταν ο χρόνος κατά τον οποίο ο μυούμενος έπρεπε να εκδηλώσει αρμονική ιδεολογία ανάλογη προς τα εκδηλούμενα χρώματα των ανθέων αυτής της εποχής καθώς και αρμονική εκδήλωση αισθημάτων ανάλογη προς τα αρώματα των ανθέων αυτής της εποχής. Κατά τους Ορφικούς τα αρώματα και τα χρώματα αυτής της εποχής αναπαριστούν την βαίνουσα προς αποθέωση ανθρώπινη ψυχή, η οποία απέβαλε το έρεβος και προορίζεται πλέον σε θεία πνευματική ανάσταση.

Κατά τους μύστες της Ελευσίνας, η εποχή που περιλαμβάνεται μεταξύ εαρινής ισημερίας και θερινής τροπής του Ηλίου είναι η περίοδος κατά την οποία το ανιστάμενο πνεύμα έρχεται στην αποθέωση και την απόκτηση της αιώνιας ζωής.

Εκ των προαναφερθέντων συνάγεται ότι η περίοδος από την εαρινή ισημερία μέχρι την θερινή τροπή του Ηλίου είναι η περίοδος της αναγεννήσεως και μεταμορφώσεως των ανθρωπίνων ψυχών στις πνευματικές φύσεις του πνευματικού κόσμου, καθώς και της προετοιμασίας για τον πλήρη αποχωρισμό τους από το έρεβος.

Ο ΣΥΜΒΟΛΙΣΜΟΣ ΤΗΣ ΘΕΡΙΝΗΣ ΤΡΟΠΗΣ ΤΟΥ ΗΛΙΟΥ

Οι Ορφικοί κατά την θερινή τροπή του Ηλίου τελούσαν γιορτές που αναφέρονταν στον θρίαμβο κατά του νόμου του θανάτου, της τιτανικής φύσεως του Διονύσου. Κατά τις εορτές αυτές εξέφραζαν την λατρεία τους προς την θεία δημιουργία που έφθασε δια των εκδηλώσεων των Νόμων της στην εμφάνιση των νόμων της αποθεώσεως των όντων της που είναι το έκτο ιερό δράμα της δημιουργίας. Επίσης εξέφραζαν την ευγνωμοσύνη τους προς τα αποθεωθέντα τέκνα της, υπό την προστασία των οποίων ετίθεντο με την θέλησή τους. Στις γιορτές που τελούσαν οι Ορφικοί κατά την θερινή τροπή του Ηλίου λάμβαναν μέρος μόνον εκείνοι που είχαν διέλθει όλους τους βαθμούς της ορφικής μυήσεως και τα συμπόσιά τους δεν τα αποτελούσαν πλέον τα ωμοφάγια, αλλά τροφή που την αποκαλούσαν αμβροσιακή και ποτό που αποκαλούσαν Διονυσιακό οίνο. Αποκορύφωση των εκδηλώσεων των Ορφικών αποτελούσε η εκδήλωση της ευγνωμοσύνης τους προς τον Θεό Απόλλωνα, τον Θεό της αιωνίας νεότητας, ο οποίος, κατ’ αυτήν την ώρα του έτους, παρέδιδε την λύρα του στον Θείο Ορφέα για να κρούει τις χορδές της και να με­ταδίδει στις ψυχές των μυστών τους ήχους της ώστε να εναρμονίζουν τις πνευματικές τους δυνάμεις προς την πνευματική φύση του Θεού της αιωνίας νεότητας. Η τετάρτη και τελευταία μύηση των Ορφικών μυστηρίων γινόταν κατά την θερινή τροπή του Ηλίου που οι ακτίνες του φωτός Του είναι ζωηρότερες και οι καρποί ωριμάζουν. Η θερμότητα των Ηλιακών ακτίνων αυτής της εποχής αναπαρι­στούσε το φωτοβόλο των σκέψεων των τελείων μυστών και το γόνιμο των καρπών της θείας ιδεολογίας που οι ιεροφάντες κληροδοτούσαν στους διαδόχους τους.

Οι Μύστες της Ελευσίνας τελούσαν κατά την θερινή τροπή του Ηλίου γιορτή σε δόξα και ανάσταση της Κόρης Περσεφόνης και σε δόξα Διονύσου του Ελευθερέως, δηλαδή του ελευθερωτή των ανθρωπίνων ψυχών. Η Περσεφόνη είναι η ψυχή της Γης, η οποία διήλθε απ’ όλες τις καταστάσεις των τεσσά­ρων εποχών και κατόπιν ήλθε στον Όλυμπο, δηλαδή στην χώρα της αιώνιας ζωής του πνεύματος. Πριν όμως έλθει στην χώρα της αιώνιας ζωής συνεζεύχθη τον Διόνυσο τον Ελευθερέα και έτσι θα ζήσει μετ’ αυτού την αιώνια νεότητα και ευθυμία. Ιδού ποιος είναι ο κλήρος της ψυχής των θείων Μυστών και σαφώς τον απεκάλυψαν οι Θείοι Μύστες της Ελευσίνας. Επίσης οι Μύστες της Ελευσίνας έλεγαν ότι κατά την θερινή τροπή του Ηλίου ωριμάζει ο σίτος του οποίου η σπορά, η βλάστηση και η ωρίμανση εικονίζει την ψυχή του μύστη την εξελισσόμενη προς την αποθέωση. Την καλλιέργεια του σίτου δίδαξε η Δήμητρα που είναι η θεά της Γης. Ο σίτος εικονίζει μεταμορφωτικό μέσο. Μεταβάλλεται σε σώμα του Χριστού, παντός Χριστού. Μετά το σίτο εμφανίζεται η σταφυλή, σύμβολο του Διονύσου. Ο χυμός της σταφυλής εικονίζει άλλο μεταμορφωτικό μέσο. Είναι το αίμα του Χριστού, παντός Χριστού.

Οι Μύστες των Δελφών κατά την θερινή τροπή του Ηλίου τε­λούσαν ανάλογη τελετή σε δόξα του Φοίβου Απόλλωνος.

Εκ των προαναφερθέντων συνάγεται ότι η θερινή τροπή του Ήλιου συμβολίζει τον θρίαμβό της ψυχής του μύστου επί του νόμου του θανάτου και τον οριστικό αποχωρισμό της από το έρεβος (δηλαδή την αποθέωση) που είναι το έκτο ιερό δράμα της εξελικτικής πορείας της Φύσεως. Από το έρεβος αποχωρίζεται η ανθρώπινη ψυχή που απόκτησε τον πνευματικό της οργανισμό και απελευθερώθηκε από τα δεσμά του περιβάλλοντός της.

Ο θρίαμβος της ανθρώπινης ψυχής επί του νόμου του θανάτου σημαίνει ότι η ανθρώπινη ψυχή δεν θα ξαναπεράσει πια από την διαδικασία του θανάτου γιατί έχει πλέον αποκτήσει τον πνευματικό της οργανισμό που είναι ένα αιώνιο οργανικό μέσο που της εξασφαλίζει την αιωνιότητα. Χαρακτηριστικό παράδειγμα αποθέωσης είναι η περίπτωση του Ηρακλή ο οποίος κατόρθωσε να εξαλείψει τα πάθη του μέσω των άθλων που επιτέλεσε και αυτό ολοκληρώνεται με τον συμβολικό οδυνηρό του θάνατο στην πυρά (γιατί όπως είπαμε ο θάνατος των παθών είναι οδυνηρός) και κατόπιν θα οδηγηθεί στον πνευματικό Όλυμπο δηλαδή στην αποθέωσή του.

Η εξάλειψη των παθών είναι η υπέρτατη πράξη ηρωισμού του ανθρώπου!

ΣΤΥΛΙΑΝΟΣ ΤΑΚΑΣ, πτυχιούχος της φυσικής και της νομικής σχολής τπυ παν/μιου Αθηνών με μεταπτυχιακό στα ηλεμτρονιά

ΒΙΒΛΙΟΓΡΑΦΙΑ: Στυλ. Τάκα «Ο ΠΥΘΑΓΟΡΕΙΟΣ ΕΣΩΤΕΡΙΣΜΟΣ» Β’ έκδοση

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PHILIA CAR ARETEE YPSISTEE ,ES TA KATH’EEMOON HIEROOMENA (I)

Cicero:On Friendship, or Laelius


Introduction

Marcus Tullius Cicero, the greatest of Roman orators and the chief master of Latin prose style, was born at Arpinum, Jan. 3, 106 B.C. His father, who was a man of property and belonged to the class of the “Knights,” moved to Rome when Cicero was a child; and the future statesman received an elaborate education in rhetoric, law, and philosophy, studying and practising under some of the most noted teachers of the time. He began his career as an advocate at the age of twenty-five, and almost immediately came to be recognized not only as a man of brilliant talents but also as a courageous upholder of justice in the face of grave political danger. After two years of practice he left Rome to travel in Greece and Asia, taking all the opportunities that offered to study his art under distinguished masters. He returned to Rome greatly improved in health and in professional skill, and in 76 B.C. was elected to the office of quaestor. He was assigned to the province of Lilybaeum in Sicily, and the vigor and justice of his administration earned him the gratitude of the inhabitants. It was at their request that he undertook in 70 B.C. the prosecution of Verres, who as praetor had subjected the Sicilians to incredible extortion and oppression; and his successful conduct of this case, which ended in the conviction and banishment of Verres, may be said to have launched him on his political career. He became aedile in the same year, in 67 B.C. praetor, and in 64 B.C. was elected consul by a large majority. The most important event of the year of his consulship was the conspiracy of Catiline. This notorious criminal of patrician rank had conspired with a number of others, many of them young men of high birth but dissipated character, to seize the chief offices of the state, and to extricate themselves from the pecuniary and other difficulties that had resulted from their excesses, by the wholesale plunder of the city. The plot was unmasked by the vigilance of Cicero, five of the traitors were summarily executed, and in the overthrow of the army that had been gathered in their support Catiline himself perished. Cicero regarded himself as the savior of his country, and his country for the moment seemed to give grateful assent.

CICERO ACCUSING

But reverses were at hand. During the existence of the political combination of Pompey, Caesar, and Crassus, known as the first triumvirate, P. Clodius, an enemy of Cicero’s, proposed a law banishing “any one who had put Roman citizens to death without trial.” This was aimed at Cicero on account of his share in the Catiline affair, and in March, 58 B.C., he left Rome. The same day a law was passed by which he was banished by name, and his property was plundered and destroyed, a temple to Liberty being erected on the site of his house in the city. During his exile Cicero’s manliness to some extent deserted him. He drifted from place to place, seeking the protection of officials against assassination, writing letters urging his supporters to agitate for his recall, sometimes accusing them of lukewarmness and even treachery, bemoaning the ingratitude of his country or regretting the course of action that had led to his outlawry, and suffering from extreme depression over his separation from his wife and children and the wreck of his political ambitions. Finally, in August, 57 B.C., the decree for his restoration was passed, and he returned to Rome the next month, being received with immense popular enthusiasm. During the next few years the renewal of the understanding among the triumvirs shut Cicero out from any leading part in politics, and he resumed his activity in the law courts, his most important case being, perhaps, the defense of Milo for the murder of Clodius, Cicero’s most troublesome enemy. This oration, in the revised form in which it has come down to us, is ranked as among the finest specimens of the art of the orator, though in its original form it failed to secure Milo’s acquittal. Meantime, Cicero was also devoting much time to literary composition, and his letters show great dejection over the political situation, and a somewhat wavering attitude towards the various parties in the state. In 51 B.C. he went to Cilicia in Asia Minor as proconsul, an office which he administered with efficiency and integrity in civil affairs and with success in military. He returned to Italy at the end of the following year, and he was publicly thanked by the senate for his services, but disappointed in his hopes for a triumph. The war for supremacy between Caesar and Pompey, which had for some time been gradually growing more certain, broke out in 49 B.C., when Caesar led his army across the Rubicon, and Cicero after much irresolution threw in his lot with Pompey, who was overthrown the next year in the battle of Pharsalus and later murdered in Egypt. Cicero returned to Italy, where Caesar treated him magnanimously, and for some time he devoted himself to philosophical and rhetorical writing. In 46 B.C. he divorced his wife Terentia, to whom he had been married for thirty years, and married the young and wealthy Publilia in order to relieve himself from financial difficulties; but her also he shortly divorced. Caesar, who had now become supreme in Rome, was assassinated in 44 B.C., and though Cicero was not a sharer in the conspiracy, he seems to have approved the deed. In the confusion which followed he supported the cause of the conspirators against Antony; and when finally the triumvirate of Antony, Octavius, and Lepidus was established, Cicero was included among the proscribed, and on December 7, 43 B.C., he was killed by agents of Antony. His head and hand were cut off and exhibited at Rome.

The most important orations of the last months of his life were the fourteen “Philippics” delivered against Antony, and the price of this enmity he paid with his life.

To his contemporaries Cicero was primarily the great forensic and political orator of his time, and the fifty-eight speeches which have come down to us bear testimony to the skill, wit, eloquence, and passion which gave him his preeminence. But these speeches of necessity deal with the minute details of the occasions which called them forth, and so require for their appreciation a full knowledge of the history, political and personal, of the time. The letters, on the other hand, are less elaborate both in style and in the handling of current events, while they serve to reveal his personality, and to throw light upon Roman life in the last days of the Republic in an extremely vivid fashion. Cicero as a man, in spite of his self-importance, the vacillation of his political conduct in desperate crises, and the whining despondency of his times of adversity, stands out as at bottom a patriotic Roman of substantial honesty, who gave his life to check the inevitable fall of the commonwealth to which he was devoted. The evils which were undermining the Republic bear so many striking resemblances to those which threaten the civic and national life of America today that the interest of the period is by no means merely historical.

As a philosopher, Cicero’s most important function was to make his countrymen familiar with the main schools of Greek thought. Much of this writing is thus of secondary interest to us in comparison with his originals, but in the fields of religious theory and of the application of philosophy to life he made important first-hand contributions. From these works has been selected the following treatise, On Friendship, which has proved of most permanent and widespread interest to posterity, and which gives a clear impression of the way in which a high-minded Roman thought about some of the main problems of human life.


Part I

The augur Quintus Mucius Scaevola used to recount a number of stories about his father-in-law, Gaius Laelius, accurately remembered and charmingly told; and whenever he talked about him always gave him the title of “the wise” without any hesitation. I had been introduced by my father to Scaevola as soon as I had assumed the toga virilis, and I took advantage of the introduction never to quit the venerable man’s side as long as I was able to stay and he was spared to us. The consequence was that I committed to memory many disquisitions of his, as well as many short pointed apophthegms, and, in short, took as much advantage of his wisdom as I could. When he died, I attached myself to Scaevola the Pontifex, whom I may venture to call quite the most distinguished of our countrymen for ability and uprightness. But of this latter I shall take other occasions to speak. To return to Scaevola the augur: Among many other occasions I particularly remember one. He was sitting on a semicircular garden-bench, as was his custom, when I and a very few intimate friends were there, and he chanced to turn the conversation upon a subject which about that time was in many people’s mouths. You must remember, Atticus, for you were very intimate with Publius Sulpicius, what expressions of astonishment, or even indignation, were called forth by his mortal quarrel, as tribune, with the consul Quintus Pompeius, with whom he had formerly lived on terms of the closest intimacy and affection. Well, on this occasion, happening to mention this particular circumstance, Scaevola detailed to us a discourse of Laelius on friendship delivered to himself and Laelius’ other son-in-law, Gaius Fannius, son of Marcus Fannius, a few days after the death of Africanus. The points of that discussion I committed to memory, and have arranged them in this book at my own discretion. For I have brought the speakers, as it were, personally on to my stage to prevent the constant “said I” and “said he” of a narrative, and to give the discourse the air of being orally delivered in our hearing.

You have often urged me to write something on Friendship, and I quite acknowledged that the subject seemed one worth everybody’s investigation, and specially suited to the close intimacy that has existed between you and me. Accordingly I was quite ready to benefit the public at your request.

As to the dramatis personae: In the treatise On Old Age, which I dedicated to you, I introduced Cato as chief speaker. No one, I thought, could with greater propriety speak on old age than one who had been an old man longer than any one else, and had been exceptionally vigorous in his old age. Similarly, having learnt from tradition that of all friendships that between Gaius Laelius and Publius Scipio was the most remarkable, I thought Laelius was just the person to support the chief part in a discussion on friendship which Scaevola remembered him to have actually taken. Moreover, a discussion of this sort gains somehow in weight from the authority of men of ancient days, especially if they happen to have been distinguished. So it comes about that in reading over what I have myself written I have a feeling at times that it is actually Cato that is speaking, not I.

Finally, as I sent the former essay to you as a gift from one old man to another, so I have dedicated this On Friendship as a most affectionate friend to his friend. In the former Cato spoke, who was the oldest and wisest man of his day; in this Laelius speaks on friendship – Laelius, who was at once a wise man (that was the title given him) and eminent for his famous friendship. Please forget me for a while; imagine Laelius to be speaking.

Gaius Fannius and Quintus Mucius come to call on their father-in-law after the death of Africanus. They start the subject; Laelius answers them. And the whole essay on friendship is his. In reading it you will recognise a picture of yourself.

2. Fannius. You are quite right, Laelius! there never was a better or more illustrious character than Africanus. But you should consider that at the present moment all eyes are on you. Everybody calls you “the wise” par excellence, and thinks you so. The same mark of respect was lately paid Cato, and we know that in the last generation Lucius Atilius was called “the wise.” But in both cases the word was applied with a certain difference. Atilius was so called from his reputation as a jurist; Cato got the name as a kind of honorary title and in extreme old age because of his varied experience of affairs, and his reputation for foresight and firmness, and the sagacity of the opinions which he delivered in senate and forum. You, however, are regarded as “wise” in a somewhat different sense – not alone on account of natural ability and character, but also from your industry and learning; and not in the sense in which the vulgar, but that in which scholars, give that title. In this sense we do not read of any one being called wise in Greece except one man at Athens; and he, to be sure, had been declared by the oracle of Apollo also to be “the supremely wise man.” For those who commonly go by the name of the Seven Sages are not admitted into the category of the wise by fastidious critics. Your wisdom people believe to consist in this, that you look upon yourself as self-sufficing and regard the changes and chances of mortal life as powerless to affect your virtue. Accordingly they are always asking me, and doubtless also our Scaevola here, how you bear the death of Africanus. This curiosity has been the more excited from the fact that on the Nones of this month, when we augurs met as usual in the suburban villa of Decimus Brutus for consultation, you were not present, though it had always been your habit to keep that appointment and perform that duty with the utmost punctuality.

Scaevola. Yes, indeed, Laelius, I am often asked the question mentioned by Fannius. But I answer in accordance with what I have observed: I say that you bear in a reasonable manner the grief which you have sustained in the death of one who was at once a man of the most illustrious character and a very dear friend. That of course you could not but be affected – anything else would have been wholly unnatural in a man of your gentle nature – but that the cause of your non-attendance at our college meeting was illness, not melancholy.

Laelius. Thanks, Scaevola! You are quite right; you spoke the exact truth. For in fact I had no right to allow myself to be withdrawn from a duty which I had regularly performed, as long as I was well, by any personal misfortune; nor do I think that anything that can happen will cause a man of principle to intermit a duty. As for your telling me, Fannius, of the honourable appellation given me (an appellation to which I do not recognise my title, and to which I make no claim), you doubtless act from feelings of affection; but I must say that you seem to me to do less than justice to Cato. If any one was ever “wise,” – of which I have my doubts – he was. Putting aside everything else, consider how he bore his son’s death! I had not forgotten Paulus; I had seen with my own eyes Gallus. But they lost their sons when mere children; Cato his when he was a full-grown man with an assured reputation. Do not therefore be in a hurry to reckon as Cato’s superior even that same famous personage whom Apollo, as you say, declared to be “the wisest.” Remember the former’s reputation rests on deeds, the latter’s on words.

3. Now, as far as I am concerned (I speak to both of you now), believe me, the case stands thus: If I were to say that I am not affected by regret for Scipio, I must leave the philosophers to justify my conduct, but in point of fact I should be telling a lie. Affected of course I am by the loss of a friend as I think there will never be again, such as I can fearlessly say there never was before. But I stand in no need of medicine. I can find my own consolation, and it consists chiefly in my being free from the mistaken notion which generally causes pain at the departure of friends. To Scipio I am convinced no evil has befallen: mine is the disaster, if disaster there be; and to be severely distressed at one’s own misfortunes does not show that you love your friend, but that you love yourself.

As for him, who can say that all is not more than well? For, unless he had taken the fancy to wish for immortality, the last thing of which he ever thought, what is there for which mortal man may wish that he did not attain? In his early manhood he more than justified by extraordinary personal courage the hopes which his fellow-citizens had conceived of him as a child. He never was a candidate for the consulship, yet was elected consul twice: the first time before the legal age; the second at a time which, as far as he was concerned, was soon enough, but was near being too late for the interests of the State. By the overthrow of two cities which were the most bitter enemies of our Empire, he put an end not only to the wars then raging, but also to the possibility of others in the future. What need to mention the exquisite grace of his manners, his dutiful devotion to his mother, his generosity to his sisters, his liberality to his relations, the integrity of his conduct to every one? You know all this already. Finally, the estimation in which his fellow-citizens held him has been shown by the signs of mourning which accompanied his obsequies. What could such a man have gained by the addition of a few years? Though age need not be a burden, – as I remember Cato arguing in the presence of myself and Scipio two years before he died, – yet it cannot but take away the vigour and freshness which Scipio was still enjoying. We may conclude therefore that his life, from the good fortune which had attended him and the glory he had obtained, was so circumstanced that it could not be bettered, while the suddenness of his death saved him the sensation of dying. As to the manner of his death it is difficult to speak; you see what people suspect. Thus much, however, I may say: Scipio in his lifetime saw many days of supreme triumph and exultation, but none more magnificent than his last, on which, upon the rising of the Senate, he was escorted by the senators and the people of Rome, by the allies, and by the Latins, to his own door. From such an elevation of popular esteem the next step seems naturally to be an ascent to the gods above, rather than a descent to Hades.

4. For I am not one of these modern philosophers who maintain that our souls perish with our bodies, and that death ends all. With me ancient opinion has more weight: whether it be that of our own ancestors, who attributed such solemn observances to the dead, as they plainly would not have done if they had believed them to be wholly annihilated; or that of the philosophers who once visited this country, and who by their maxims and doctrines educated Magna Graecia, which at that time was in a flourishing condition, though it has now been ruined; or that of the man who was declared by Apollo’s oracle to be “most wise,” and who used to teach without the variation which is to be found in most philosophers that “the souls of men are divine, and that when they have quitted the body a return to heaven is open to them, least difficult to those who have been most virtuous and just.” This opinion was shared by Scipio. Only a few days before his death – as though he had a presentiment of what was coming – he discoursed for three days on the state of the republic. The company consisted of Philus and Manlius and several others, and I had brought you, Scaevola, along with me. The last part of his discourse referred principally to the immortality of the soul; for he told us what he had heard from the elder Africanus in a dream. Now if it be true that in proportion to a man’s goodness the escape from what may be called the prison and bonds of the flesh is easiest, whom can we imagine to have had an easier voyage to the gods than Scipio? I am disposed to think, therefore, that in his case mourning would be a sign of envy rather than of friendship. If, however, the truth rather is that the body and soul perish together, and that no sensation remains, then though there is nothing good in death, at least there is nothing bad. Remove sensation, and a man is exactly as though he had never been born; and yet that this man was born is a joy to me, and will be a subject to rejoicing to this State to its last hour.

Wherefore, as I said before, all is as well as possible with him. Not so with me; for as I entered life before him, it would have been fairer for me to leave it also before him. Yet such is the pleasure I take in recalling our friendship, that I look upon my life as having been a happy one because I have spent it with Scipio. With him I was associated in public and private business; with him I lived in Rome and served abroad; and between us there was the most complete harmony in our tastes, our pursuits, and our sentiments, which is the true secret of friendship. It is not therefore in that reputation for wisdom mentioned just now by Fannius – especially as it happens to be groundless – that I find my happiness so much, as in the hope that the memory of our friendship will be lasting. What makes me care the more about this is the fact that in all history there are scarcely three or four pairs of friends on record; and it is classed with them that I cherish a hope of the friendship of Scipio and Laelius being known to posterity.

Fannius. Of course that must be so, Laelius. But since you have mentioned the word friendship, and we are at leisure, you would be doing me a great kindness, and I expect Scaevola also, if you would do as it is your habit to do when asked questions on other subjects, and tell us your sentiments about friendship, its nature, and the rules to be observed in regard to it.

Scaevola. I shall of course be delighted. Fannius has anticipated the very request I was about to make. So you will be doing us both a great favour.

5. Laelius. I should certainly have no objection if I felt confidence in myself. For the theme is a noble one, and we are (as Fannius has said) at leisure. But who am I? and what ability have I? What you propose is all very well for professional philosophers, who are used, particularly if Greeks, to have the subject for discussion proposed to them on the spur of the moment. It is a task of considerable difficulty, and requires no little practice. Therefore for a set discourse on friendship you must go, I think, to professional lecturers. All I can do is to urge on you to regard friendship as the greatest thing in the world; for there is nothing which so fits in with our nature, or is so exactly what we want in prosperity or adversity.

But I must at the very beginning lay down this principle – friendship can only exist between good men. I do not, however, press this too closely, like the philosophers who push their definitions to a superfluous accuracy. They have truth on their side, perhaps, but it is of no practical advantage. Those, I mean, who say that no one but the “wise” is “good.” Granted, by all means. But the “wisdom” they mean is one to which no mortal ever yet attained. We must concern ourselves with the facts of everyday life as we find it – not imaginary and ideal perfections. Even Gaius Fannius, Manius Curius, and Tiberius Coruncanius, whom our ancestors decided to be “wise,” I could never declare to be so according to their standard. Let them, then, keep this word “wisdom” to themselves. Everybody is irritated by it; no one understands what it means. Let them but grant that the men I mentioned were “good.” No, they won’t do that either. No one but the “wise” can be allowed that title, say they. Well, then, let us dismiss them and manage as best we may with our own poor mother wit, as the phrase is.

We mean then by the “good” those whose actions and lives leave no question as to their honour, purity, equity, and liberality; who are free from greed, lust, and violence; and who have the courage of their convictions. The men I have just named may serve as examples. Such men as these being generally accounted “good,” let us agree to call them so, on the ground that to the best of human ability they follow nature as the most perfect guide to a good life.

Now this truth seems clear to me, that nature has so formed us that a certain tie unites us all, but that this tie becomes stronger from proximity. So it is that fellow-citizens are preferred in our affections to foreigners, relations to strangers; for in their case Nature herself has caused a kind of friendship to exist, though it is one which lacks some of the elements of permanence. Friendship excels relationship in this, that whereas you may eliminate affection from relationship, you cannot do so from friendship. Without it relationship still exists in name, friendship does not. You may best understand this friendship by considering that, whereas the merely natural ties uniting the human race are indefinite, this one is so concentrated, and confined to so narrow a sphere, that affection is ever shared by two persons only, or at most by a few.

6. Now friendship may be thus defined: a complete accord on all subjects human and divine, joined with mutual good will and affection. And with the exception of wisdom, I am inclined to think nothing better than this has been given to man by the immortal gods. There are people who give the palm to riches or to good health, or to power and office, many even to sensual pleasures. This last is the ideal of brute beasts; and of the others we may say that they are frail and uncertain, and depend less on our own prudence than on the caprice of fortune. Then there are those who find the “chief good” in virtue. Well, that is a noble doctrine. But the very virtue they talk of is the parent and preserver of friendship, and without it friendship cannot possibly exist.

Let us, I repeat, use the word virtue in the ordinary acceptation and meaning of the term, and do not let us define it in high-flown language. Let us account as good the persons usually considered so, such as Paulus, Cato, Gallus, Scipio, and Philus. Such men as these are good enough for everyday life; and we need not trouble ourselves about those ideal characters which are nowhere to be met with.

Well, between men like these the advantages of friendship are almost more than I can say. To begin with, how can life be worth living, to use the words of Ennius, which lacks that repose which is to be found in the mutual good will of a friend? What can be more delightful than to have some one to whom you can say everything with the same absolute confidence as to yourself? Is not prosperity robbed of half its value if you have no one to share your joy? On the other hand, misfortunes would be hard to bear if there were not some one to feel them even more acutely than yourself. In a word, other objects of ambition serve for particular ends – riches for use, power for securing homage, office for reputation, pleasure for enjoyment, health for freedom from pain and the full use of the functions of the body. But friendship embraces innumerable advantages. Turn which way you please, you will find it at hand. It is everywhere; and yet never out of place, never unwelcome. Fire and water themselves, to use a common expression, are not of more universal use than friendship. I am not now speaking of the common or modified form of it, though even that is a source of pleasure and profit, but of that true and complete friendship which existed between the select few who are known to fame. Such friendship enhances prosperity, and relieves adversity of its burden by halving and sharing it.

(TO BE CONTINUED)
Source:© Paul Halsall, August 1998
halsall@murray.fordham.edu
Translation by Evelyn S. Shuckburgh
Letters of Marcus Tullius Cicero, with his treatises on friendship and old age; translated by E. S. Shuckburgh. And Letters of Gaius Plinius Caecilius Secundus, translated by William Melmoth, rev. by… New York, P. F. Collier [c1909]. Series title: The Harvard classics v.9.
Cicero, Marcus Tullius: Laelius; a dialogue on friendship, by M. Tullius Cicero; ed., with notes, vocabulary, and biographical index by E. S. Shuckburgh … New ed. rev. and enl., for use in American colleges, by Henry Clark Johnson … New York,
London, Macmillan and co., 1913. Series title: Elementary classics.

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Τα ελληνικά ιδεώδη μεταγλωσσικης σοφιας

Τα ελληνικά ιδεώδη – ολοκληρώνουν τον άνθρωπο !!

Η μελέτη των αρχαίων Ελλήνων μοναδική πηγή πλούτου

Δεν υπάρχει αμφιβολία ότι ζούμε στην εποχή των θετικών επιστημών, της προηγμένης και συνεχώς εξελισσόμενης τεχνολογίας. Προωθούμε τα παιδιά μας, τους νέους μας, να παρακολουθήσουν μαθήματα θετικών επιστημών ή εκείνα που θα τους δώσουν  ένα συγκεκριμένο επάγγελμα με όσο το δυνατό μεγαλύτερες οικονομικές αποδοχές. Και ως ένα σημείο σωστά πράττουμε διότι η πραγματικότητα απαιτεί οικονομική ευημερία για την πιο άνετη ζωή μας. Βεβαίως, πολλοί δεν σταματούν στην “οικονομική άνεση”, αλλά θέτουν σκοπό της ζωής τους την απόκτηση όσο το δυνατόν περισσότερων περιουσιακών στοιχείων σε ρευστό χρήμα, ακίνητα κ.ά.   Περιορίζονται, όμως, οι απολαύσεις της ζωής στα υλικά αγαθά ; Για πολλούς, για πάρα πολλούς, Ναι !!

‘Έτσι, βλέπουμε καθημερινά ανθρώπους πνιγμένους στο χρήμα να είναι κενοί πνευματικά και πάμπτωχοι ηθικά. Η ολοκλήρωση του ανθρώπου δεν γίνεται ούτε μόνο με τεχνικές γνώσεις, ούτε με τον οικονομικό πλούτο, ούτε με αξιώματα. Λείπει το στοιχείο της ανθρωπιάς, των πνευματικών εκείνων αγαθών που δίνουν πληρότητα και ηθική ικανοποίηση, τα στοιχεία που κάνουν αληθινά υπερήφανο τον άνθρωπο, ουσιαστικά χρήσιμο. Τα βασικά στοιχεία του καθαρού πνεύματος, της ορθής παιδείας (επίσημης ή μη), τα στοιχεία του πνευματικού πλούτου. Και η καλύτερη πηγή, από την οποία θα αντλήσουμε τα στοιχεία αυτά, είναι η μελέτη των αρχαίων ελληνικών συγγραμμάτων (σε οποιαδήποτε γλώσσα), που ανοίγουν το μυαλό μας, καθώς και η μελέτη νεότερων διανοητών. ‘Έτσι, το μυαλό, απαλλαγμένο από οιουσδήποτε περιορισμούς, να λειτουργεί και να παράγει.
Δεν είναι πολυτέλεια η μελέτη των συγγραμμάτων αυτών. Είναι ανάγκη. ‘Άλλωστε η ελληνική φιλοσοφία είναι η βάση των επιστημών. Είναι η απαρχή της αναζήτησης. Και από την αναζήτηση γεννήθηκαν οι ειδικές γνώσεις, οι επιστήμες.

Τα μαθηματικά  τα οποία αναμφισβήτητα γεννήθηκαν στην αρχαία Ελλάδα  βασίζονται σε φιλοσοφική θεώρηση. Είναι προϊόν φιλοσοφικής σκέψης, λογικών συλλογισμών. Το ίδιο και η φυσική και πολλές άλλες επιστήμες.

Πως λοιπόν θεωρούμε την φιλοσοφία ξέχωρη από της θετικές επιστήμες ;

Η μελέτη των αρχαίων Ελλήνων θα μας δώσει απαντήσεις σε πάρα πολλά ερωτήματα και θα μας πλουτίσει ψυχικά και πνευματικά. Θα μας κάνει πιο ολοκληρωμένους ανθρώπους. Θα οξύνει την σκέψη μας και θα μας οδηγήσει στην αληθινή ευφροσύνη. Παράλληλα, θα είναι μεγαλύτερη η απόδοσή μας στον επαγγελματικό και κοινωνικό τομέα. Οι ακράδαντες βάσεις της ελληνικής σκέψης θα μας οδηγήσουν και στην ποιοτικά καλύτερη και αρμονικότερη συμβίωση. Είναι οι βάσεις του πολιτισμού και του ανθρωπισμού. Είναι ανεξάντλητες οι ελληνικές πηγές. Και όσο μαθαίνουμε, τόσο διαπιστώνουμε πόσα δεν ξέρουμε. Η μάθηση δεν σταματά ποτέ. Ας ανατρέξουμε λοιπόν στις ανεξάντλητες πηγές πνευματικού πλούτου των Ελλήνων, οι οποίες ισχύουν για όλες τις εποχές και για όλη την ανθρωπότητα. Επιστήμονες και μελετητές μη ‘Έλληνες έχουν φωτιστεί από τα ελληνικά συγγράμματα. Ας φωτιστούμε κι εμείς όλοι από την άσβεστη ελληνική φλόγα. Η Ελλάδα δεν είναι μικρή. Δεν ήταν ποτέ μικρή. Ο πλούτος της βρίσκεται στην πνευματικότητα και την αρετή. Ο χώρος της επεκτείνεται σε ολόκληρη τη γη. Δεν έχει σύνορα ο Ελληνισμός. Δεν κάνει διάκριση. Δεν έχει περιούσιους λαούς. Την αρετή μπορεί να την αποκτήσει οποιοσδήποτε και οπουδήποτε, αρκεί ν’ ανατρέξει στις πηγές της. Ο ‘Έλληνας δεν είναι φυλετική έννοια. ‘Έλληνας είναι αυτός που έχει μυηθεί στα αθάνατα ελληνικά ιδεώδη. Αυτός που σκέπτεται και πράττει ελληνικά. Παγκόσμιος ενάρετος πολίτης.

Είναι ανάγκη να ανατρέξουμε στους ‘Έλληνες συγγραφείς. Είναι ανάγκη να προωθήσουμε τον ελληνικό πολιτισμό.

Είναι ανάγκη να τον περιφρουρήσουμε, να τον διαφυλάξουμε από τους παντοίους κινδύνους και τη λασπολογία.

«Οι ‘Έλληνες πήραν τον άνθρωπο και τον έστησαν στα πόδια του»

«…Για χιλιάδες χρόνια παλαιότεροι πολιτισμοί, όπως αυτοί των Περσών, των Ασσύριων, των Βαβυλώνιων, έβλεπαν τον άνθρωπο ως ένα απεχθές ον που σέρνονταν μπροστά σε θεότητες και δυνάστες. Οι ‘Έλληνες όμως, πήραν τον άνθρωπο και τον έστησαν στα πόδια του. Τον δίδαξαν να είναι υπερήφανος. Ο κόσμος είναι γεμάτος θαύματα, έλεγε ο Σοφοκλής, αλλά τίποτα δεν είναι πιο θαυμάσιο από τον άνθρωπο.
   Οι ‘Έλληνες έπεισαν τον άνθρωπο, όπως ο Περικλής το τοποθέτησε, ότι ήταν δικαιωματικά ο κάτοχος και ο κύριος του εαυτού του και δημιούργησαν νόμους για να περιφρουρήσουν τις προσωπικές του ελευθερίες. Οι αρχαίοι Έλληνες ενθάρρυναν την περιέργεια που είχε ο άνθρωπος για τον εαυτόν του και για τον κόσμο που τον περιτριγύριζε, διακηρύττοντας μαζί με τον Σωκράτη ότι μια ζωή χωρίς έρευνα δεν αξίζει τον κόπο να την ζούμε.
   Οι ‘Έλληνες πίστευαν στην τελειότητα σε όλα τα πράγματα, γι΄ αυτό μας κληροδότησαν την ομορφιά, που φτάνει από τον Παρθενώνα και τα ελληνικά αγάλματα, τις τραγωδίες του Αισχύλου, του Ευριπίδη και του Σοφοκλή, την ποίηση του Ησίοδου και του ‘Ομήρου, μέχρι τα ζωγραφισμένα αγγεία ενός απλού νοικοκυριού.
   Χωρίς τους ‘Έλληνες μπορεί ποτέ να μην είχαμε αντιληφθεί τι είναι αυτοδιοίκηση. Αλλά, πολύ περισσότερο ακόμα και από την γλώσσα μας, τους νόμους μας, τη λογική μας, τα πρότυπά μας της αλήθειας και της ομορφιάς, χρωστάμε σε αυτούς την βαθειά αίσθηση για την αξιοπρέπεια του ανθρώπου.
   Από τους ‘Έλληνες μάθαμε να φιλοδοξούμε χωρίς περιορισμούς, να είμαστε, όπως είπε ο  Αριστοτέλης, αθάνατοι μέχρι εκεί που μας είναι δυνατό…».

Πολιτιστικός Σύνδεσμος Ελλήνων και Φιλελλήνων Καναδά

 

ΦΙΛΟΣΟΦΙΑ ΕΝ ΤΗ ΓΛΩΤΤΗ

ΤΕΚΝΟΝ = Τ(ελείωση) ή Τα(αίριασμα) Ε(νεργειών) από τον Νου. Τι μας λέει εδώ ο Έλλην Λόγος? Ότι για να υπάρξει ένα τέκνο, θα πρέπει να υπάρξει τελείωση ή/και ταίριασμα ΕΝεργειών του Νου. Μήπως είναι αυθάιρετη η ερμηνεία? Ας το δούμε και ΔΙΑ-φορετικά: τι είναι ΤΕΚΝΟΝ? Μα τι άλλο από ΤΕΚος (κυοφορία) του ΝΟΥ. Μιλάει η ίδια η λέξη και επιβεβαιώνει τη πρώτη ερμηνεία μας. Άρα οι πιθανότητες να μην ισχύει η εν λόγω ερμηνεία είναι – θα έλεγα μικρές.
Ας συνεχίσουμε: ένα τέκνο, από τι στάδια περνάει?
Αρχικά από την γέννηση. Μα τι είναι γέννηση? Γ(αιώδης)ΕΝ +Νους, δηλ. η ροή εκ του ΕΝ δυνάμεών του (νους) με την εισχώρηση αυτών σε υλικό επίπεδο (γαιώδης). Η ίδια ετυμολογία θα ταιριάζει και στην λέξη Γένος, για προφανείς λόγους (είναι σχετική με την γέννηση έννοια).
Τι στάδιο ακολουθεί στο τέκνο, μετά την γέννηση? Έχουμε το παιδί Βρέφος. Τι είναι το ΒΡΕΦΟΣ?
Το Β είναι δηλωτικό μιας ισχυρής δύναμης, όπως π.χ. η Βαρύτητα (τις έννοιες των γραμμάτων μας τις αποκαλύπτουν ορισμένες λέξεις οι οποίες περιέχουν τα ίδια αυτά γράμματα, ιδίως στην αρχή τους) και μιας σταθερότητας όπως η Βάση. Ρ = ροή, Ε = ενέργεια και ΦΩΣ. Δηλ. βρέφος είναι η ισχυρή και σταθερή ροή της ενέργειας του φωτός. Τώρα εδώ υποθέτω ότι ως Φως εννοείτε το πνευματικό, θείο φως και όχι το αισθητό.
Μετά ακολουθεί το στάδιο του Νηπίου. Τι είναι ΝΗΠΙΟ? Μα… Νους Ήπιος, ένας νέος αγνός νους που διαμορφώνεται σιγά – σιγά με τις εμπειρίες που λαμβάνει η ψυχή στον αισθητό κόσμο μας. Η ίδια ερμηνεία λίγο ΔΙΑ-φορετικά: Νήπιο είναι Ν=Νους, Η=Ηλιος, Π=Πυρ, Ο=Ο-μικρόν, δηλ. Νους που δια του Ηλιακού Πυρός (ενέργεια) εισχωρεί σε μικρό – περιορισμένο χώρο (εννοεί το μικρό σώμα του νηπίου). Το Ηλιακό Πυρ μου φαίνεται ότι είναι κατώτερης μορφής φωτοδοτικής ενέργειας από το αγνό, θείο φως και νομίζω ότι δηλώνει την εισχώρηση του φωτός σε κατώτερες «σφαίρες» όπως είναι ο δικός μας, υλικός, γαιώδης κόσμος.
Μετά το νήπιο, τι στάδιο έχουμε? ΠΑΙΔΙΟΝ. Τι είναι το παιδίον? Μα τι άλλο εκτός από ΠΑΙ + ΔΙΟΝ. Δηλ. Π = Πυρ, Α = Ανώτατη Άρρητος Αρχή, Ι = Ιδέα + την διαμορφωτική δύναμη τους Διός. Με άλλα λόγια Παιδίον είναι η ενέργεια (πυρ) εκ της Αρρήτου Αρχής με την μορφή Ιδέας (μιας συγκεκριμένης – στοχευμμένης ΕΝ-έργειας) και με την διαμορφωτική δύναμη του Διός. Το δεύτερο συνθετικό της λέξεως Παιδίον, το ΔΙΟΝ σημαίνει και Δ = δύναμη, Ι = Ιδέα, Ο = Ο-μικρον, Ν= νους, δηλά δη, η δύναμις δια της ΕΝ-έργειας της Ιδέας (νοητική ΕΝέργεια) σε χώρο περιορισμένο – μικρό (εννοεί το σώμα), προερχόμενη εκ του Νου.
Μετά το στάδιο του παιδίου, τι έχουμε? Έχουμε Νέον. Τι είναι ΝΕΟΣ? Μα… νέος Νους. Νέος όπως το φρέσκος, το καινούργιο. Το Νέο μας παραμπέμπει ηχητικά (οι θείες αποκαλύψεις γίνονται ποικιλοτρόπως) και στο αρχαίο ρήμα ναίω = κατοικώ. Με άλλα λόγια, μας αποκαλύπτεται ότι Νέος είναι η κατοικία (εδραίωση) του Νου, που? Εντός μας. Ν = Νους, Ε = Ενέργεια, Ο = Ο-μικρον , δηλ. οι ΕΝέργειες του Νου σε περιορισμένο χώρο αι προφανώς η εδραίωση των δυνάμεών του.

Ο νέος λέγεται ΔΙΑ-φορετικά και έφηβος. Τι είναι ΕΦΗΒΟΣ? Η Ε = ενέργεια του Φ = φωτός κατά την ΗΒΗ (= νεότητα). Η σύνθεσις των Ενεργειών του Φωτός με την Ήβη στην λέξη έφηβος, μας αποκαλύπτει ότι υπάρξει άρρηκτος σχέση μεταξύ των ενεργειών του φωτός και της νεότητος. Για σκεφτείτε λίγο τι είπα… Τι σημαίνει αυτό? Σκεφτείτε το… Σημαίνει ότι ο νέος (έφηβος) έχει όμορφες (οι μεγάλοι σε ηλικία θα πουν ρομαντικές αλλά άτοπες) σκέψεις. Οι σκέψεις των εφήβων είναι πράγματι κατά κανόνα όμορφες, διότι συσχετίζονται με τις ενέργειες φωτός. Δεν είναι τυχαίο ότι οι νέοι είναι κατά κανόνα επαναστάτες. Και όσο υπάρχουν ενέργειες φωτός, είναι και έφηβοι (νέοι στην ηλικία). Όταν πάψουν να υφίστανται οι ενέργειες φωτός, παύει να υφίσταται και η ήβη (νεότητα). Αρχίζει και γερνά ο άνθρωπος. Σκεφτείτε το… Το ότι γερνάμε δεν είναι μόνο θέμα αποδόμησης των υλικών μας στοιχείων. Είναι και θέμα συσσώρευσης των «τοξινών» των μη φωτεινών σκέψεων που κάνουμε σε βάθος χρόνου. Οι μη φωτεινές μας σκέψεις δεν χάνονται… αθροίζονται… και συμβάλλουν ΚΑΙ στην υλική μας γήρανση. Συμβάλλουν ΚΑΙ στην σωματική μας φθορά, η οποία γίνεται και δια των νόσων. Εδώ ο Έλλην Λόγος μας λέει καθαρά ότι ένας άνθρωπος μπορεί να παραμείνει νέος, αν υιοθετήσει την αγνή σκέψη, δηλ. επιλέξει να είναι αποδέχτης το δυνατόν περισσότερο, των φωτεινών ενεργειών. Διότι μόλις αποκοπεί από τις φωτεινές ενέργειες, αρχίζει η φθορά.
Μετά από τον Νέος – Έφηβος, τι γίνεται ο άνθρωπος? Γίνεται ενήλικας. Τι είναι ΕΝΗΛΙΚΑΣ? ΕΝ + ΗΛ + ΙΚΑΣ. Ας εξηγήσουμε: Οι ΗΛιακές ΕΝέργειες που μορφοποιούνται σε Ιδέας (= γνώση) και Κατευθύνονται σε περιορισμένο χώρο (το σώμα μας). Η κατεύθυνση είναι Καθοδική καθώς η «σφαίρα» στην οποία ζούμε εμείς οι άνθρωποι είναι από τις χαμηλότερες, γαιώδους υφής, υλικής. Δεν είναι τυχαίο ότι κατά κανόνα, οι ενήλικες βρίσκονται και στο ανώτατο όριο της γνώσης που έχει κάθε άνθρωπος.
Πως λέγεται ΔΙΑ-φορετικά ο ενήλικας? Λέγεται Ενήλιξ. ΕΝ+ΗΛΙΞ δηλ. Ηλιξ όπως λέμε Έλιξ (έλικα) και ΕΝ. Όντως, από την στιγμή που είμαστε ενήλικες δεν φτάνουμε στο μέγιστο των δυνάμεών μας και κάποια στιγμή ξεκινάει η κατεύθυνση της έλικας προς το ΕΝ, με την ΔΙΑ-δικασία της γήρανσης.
Μετά τι στάδιο έχουμε? Γινόμαστε μεσήλικες. Ο Μεσήλικας είναι έννοια κοντινή με τον ενήλικα. Μας λέει ότι είμαστε στο στάδιο εν ΜΕΣω + Ηλιακών ενεργειών που Κατευθύνονται σε περιορισμένο χώρο.
Έπειτα τι ακολουθεί? Γινόμαστε Γέροι. Τι είναι Γέρος? Η προς την Γ = γη, Ε = Ενέργεια που Ρ = ρέει από το Ο= Ο-μικρον – περιορισμένο χώρο (το σώμα μας). Η ερμηνεία αυτή φανερώνει παρά πολύ καλά την ΔΙΑ-δικασία της φυσικής γήρανσης.
Σημειώστε ότι η λέξη ΔΙΑ-δικασία έχει να κάνει με ΔΙΑ + ΔΙΚΗ, δηλ. την κρίση που έχουμε από την δικαιοσύνη, της οποίας προϊσταται ο Δίας.
Ο Γέρων όμως (βλέπεται με το Ν την σύνδεσή του με τον Νου?) λέγεται και Ηλικιωμένος. Τι σημαίνει Ηλικιωμένος? Ότι η γηρασμένη – φθαρμένη ψυχή (μένος), Κατευθύνεται από τον Ήλιο, με την επικράτηση Ιδέας περί του Ω = Ω-μέγα, δηλ. της φυγής της από το Ο-μικρον (περιορισμένο χώρο – σώμα).

Και μετά όταν πεθαίνει ο γέρων, τι γίνεται? Αποθανών. Τι είναι ο αποθανών? Ο Απομακρυνόμενος από τον Θείο Νου (ΑΠΟ.ΘΑ.ΝΩΝ).
Τι είναι ο αποθανών? Είναι Νεκρός. Τι είναι ο Νεκρός? Νους που Εκρέει από το Ο-μικρον (περιορισμένο χώρο – σώμα μας), αφού εκεί ήταν «παγιδευμένος».
Έτσι ολοκληρώνεται η διαδικασία του ανθρώπου. Και τι είναι επί της ουσίας ο άνθρωπος? Το Ον που δείχνει

ΣΟΦΙΑΝΟΠΟΥΛΟΣ

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ΧΡΙΣΤΟΛΟΓΙΑ AND the Qur’an (A)

Christology in the Qur’an

The Quran speaks in a special way about Jesus, his birth his miracles,
his ascension. Some scholars have, based on the Quranic sayings about Jesus,
drawn the conclusion that the Quran does not deny and sometimes affirms  specifically Christian beliefs about Jesus. This conclusion is rejected in this  paper. The rejection is based on the Islamic view of God’s relation and revelation to the world.

The nearest in affection to the faithful are those who say “We are Christians.”
(Sura 5:82)

Believers, take neither Jews nor Christians for your friends Whoever of you seeks their friendship shall become one of their number. (5:51)  Islam is the only post-Christian world religion. According to Islamic
belief, the religion of the prophet Muhammad is the correction and  fulfillment of the Jewish and Christian messages, contained in the Old  Testament and the New Testament. The Qur’an gives attention to the People
of the Book, the Ahi al Kitab, Jews and Christians. Positive and negative  statements are made about both. Strong negative statements are made about  Jews, especially in the suras dating back to Medina. Christians are attacked
because of their erroneous views in regard to Jesus.
There has been much discussion among scholars on the question of the  influence of Judaism and Christianity on Muhammad. Tor Andrae (1926) points to the relation of Muhammad’s message to Syriac Christianity,
especially in regard to the eschatological parts of that message. Zaehner  (1958) discerns the influence of Nestorians. Van Leeuwen (1964) writes that  Islam in its initial stage was on its way to becoming “a peculiar version of  Arabian Christianity.” For many in the past and in the present, post-Christian  means semi-Christian: Islam as a Christian heresy (Bijlefeld 1959).

Jewish scholars like Torrey (1933), Goitein (1964), and others call  attention to the similarities between Islam and the Jewish religion (monotheism;
the concept of the law; the idea of the pre-existent Torah; the way  of worship, etc.).
A third group of scholars emphasizes the influence coming from  Judeo-Christian sects. In these sects Jesus is seen as the expected prophet of  the last days.
The only Christological system which was built entirely upon the foundation  of faith in the Prophet is the Jewish Christian one which we have found  in the Pseudo-Clementine Preaching of Peter—that is, a heretical branch of early  Christianity. But although the future did not belong to this part of Christianity,its Christology had a real historical role to play at a later time—not in  Christianity, but in Islam. Specialists in the study of this religion now  acknowledge that it was founded under the influence of Jewish Christianity.
Not orthodox but heretical Jewish Christianity as it was spread in the Syrian  area (precisely the branch which had no influence on the further development  of Christianity) had a part in the founding of Islam. There the figure of the  Prophet lives on in a new form. (Cullman 1963:49)  The problem is, however, to find the historical links between Jewish-Christianity  in the first/second century and Islam in the sixth/seventh century.
Von Harnack (1922:537) points to the impact of gnostic Judaizing  Christianity, an example of which are the Elkesaites. According to his view,Islam is a recast of the Jewish religion on Arab soil, after the Jewish religion  itself had been recast by gnostic features.
Islam was born as a new religion among polytheists, who were living on  the fringes of a world influenced and dominated by different forms of  Christianity (Monophysites, Nestorians, and “Melkites”). There was no  strong organized church in Arabia. There were Christian communities.
Syriac was the language of worship in those communities. The Bible had  not yet been translated into Arabic in Muhammad’s time. Certain Christian  ideas and stories were known among the population. The influence of the  Jewish religion was greater. In  Medina, where Muhammad worked from  622-632, there were three Jewish tribes. The encounter and conflict with these
tribes made the religion of Muhammad a world religion.
Muslims do not pay much attention to the question of whether Islam  has been influenced by Judaism, Christianity, or Judeo-Christian sects. To  them the Qur’an is God’s revelation, and they believe strongly in the ijaz,
the uniqueness of the Qur’an. This uniqueness is interpreted in different  ways. One interpretation is that the Qur’an reveals the truth about past and  future; the Qufan discloses hidden things of days past and days to come.
One of these hidden things disclosed is the true nature of Christ and his  work.

Jesus in the Qur’an
Jesus was no more than a mortal whom we favored and made an example to  the Israelites. (Sura 43:59)

The Qur’an speaks about Christ in 14 suras (90 different verses). More  attention is given to Abraham and Moses than to Jesus. Four of the 14 suras  are from the Meccan period, a period during which Muhammad had to cope with much resistance to his message from the Gentiles in Mecca. This  resistance was focused on his message about the resurrection. The other 10
suras which speak about Jesus date back to the Medinan period, the period  during which there was increased tension with and hostility toward Jews and  to a lesser extent toward Christians.
Two things attract the attention in what is written about Jesus in the  Qur’an. The first is that the life of Christ is linked to miraculous events. His  birth is a miraculous event; the virgin Mary gives birth to the prophet Jesus.
Mary and her son “are a sign (Arabic: aya) and a blessing (Arabic: rahmah)  from God” to the world (Sura 19:21). Not only the beginning of his life, but  also the end of his life on earth is surrounded by mystery. He leaves the  world in a mysterious way. And during his life he performs miracles, in his  youth as well as in his adult life. The second thing that draws attention to
what is written in the Qur’an about Jesus is the strong emphasis on Jesus as  no more than a human being, called by God to be a messenger, bringing  the Holy Scripture (Injil=Gospel) to his people. He is the son of Mary, not  the Son of God. The concentration on the unity (tawhid) of God leads to an  impassioned protest against what is seen as a deification of a human prophet
by the followers of Jesus. It is considered a grave sin to shift attention from  the message to the messenger, to put the person of the prophet on a level  with God, to give a partner to the one supreme and transcendent God.
The Qur’anic Jesus could be called a second Adam, but not in the same  sense as in the New Testament (Romans 5:14; 1 Corinthians 15:22). In the  Qur’an Jesus is compared to Adam, because like Adam, Jesus was born  through the creative Word of God (Sura 3:42-52; 19:16-36).
The angels said to Mary: “God bids you rejoice in a Word from him. His name   is Messiah, Jesus the son of Mary. He shall be noble in this world and the  next and he shall be favoured by God. He shall preach to men in his cradle  and in the prime of manhood, and shall lead a righteous life.” “Lord,” she  said, “how can I bear a child when no man has touched me?” He replied:
“Such is the will of Allah. He creates whom he will. When he decrees a thing  he need only to say “Be” and it is. (Sura 3:45-47)
Jesus is like Adam in the sight of God. He created him of dust and then said  to him “Be” and he was. (3:59)
The birth of Jesus is here related to the creative Word of God. In Sura  4:171 the divine Spirit is mentioned in relation to Jesus’ birth.2
The birth of Jesus is seen as an aya, a sign of God’s power. The word  aya is used many times in the Qur’an, in different ways. It is applied to the  wonders of nature as attesting to God’s existence, power, and bounty. The  prophets are also seen as an aya of God. The punishment of unbelievers  (Sura 15:75) and the deliverance of believers (29:24) are ayat, signs, of the   intervening power of God in history. Lastly, the verses of the Qur’an are also  called ayat. Human life is surrounded by signs of God’s power and majesty  in nature, in history, in the lives of the prophets, and in the Holy Scriptures  they bring to the world.
Not only Jesus’ birth is seen as an aya, but also the miracles he performs  are considered to be ayat. One of the miracles told in the Qur’an is also told  in the apocryphal Gospel of Thomas (Michaelis 1956:99-100). It is the story  about the child Jesus giving life to birds made of clay (Sura 3:49; 5:110).
Many words used in this story are also used in the creation story of Adam  (Sura 3:42-52; 19:16-36; 32:9). Sura 3:49: Jesus makes; Sura 6:2: God makes;
(Arabic: khalaqa). Sura 3:48: Jesus makes from clay; Sura 6:2: God makes  from clay; (Arabic: mina Min). Sura 3:49: Jesus breathes into it; Sura 32:9: God  breathes into it; (Arabic: nafakha). The Arabic imperative kun (Be) used in  the creation story (Sura 3:47) is also used in this story (kunfa-yakun). There  is a very clear parallelism between the creation story and the story about the  miracle performed by the child Jesus. Another miracle mentioned in Sura
5:110 is “restoring the dead to life.”
God will say: “Jesus, son of Mary, remember the favour I have bestowed on  you and on your mother: how I strengthened you with the Holy Spirit, so that  you preached to people in your cradle and in the prime of your manhood;
how I instructed you in the Scriptures and in Wisdom, in the Torah and in  the Gospel; how by my leave you fashioned from clay the likeness of a bird;how, by my leave, you healed the blind man and the leper and, by my leave,
restored the dead to life.”
The message about the resurrection of the dead before the day of  judgment encountered much opposition among the Arabs to whom Muhammad  preached, especially in Mecca. The dominating power in the  worldview of the Arabs was dahr (time), the merciless tyrant devouring life  (Izutsu 1964:124-127). Muhammad’s message about the resurrection met  unbelief, scorn, and ridicule. To the unbelief and mockery, Muhammad  responded by pointing to the creation, the creative power of God. The one  who is able to create human beings is also able to restore the dead to life.
Here again we have a parallel: what will be done by God at the end of time  is done by Jesus as a miracle during his life as messenger of God (Bouman  1977:42-44).
Jesus’ life and work, as described in the Qur’an, are in a special way  linked to the life-creating and life-renewing power of God. God’s Word  created Jesus, Jesus gave life to birds of clay, Jesus raised people from death.
Yet, the Qur’an emphasizes that Jesus does not have a special position among  all the prophets sent by God to different nations. Adam was created in a  similar way to Jesus. And the miracles performed by Jesus could only be  performed “by my leave” (Sura 5:110). Jesus does not have special power.
Power is given him in certain cases, as it is given to other messengers, in  order to reduce the resistance against the message preached by God’s  messengers.
Say: “We believe in God and that which is revealed to us; in what was revealed  to Abraham, Ishmael, Isaac, Jacob and the tribes; to Moses and Jesus and the  other prophets by their Lord. We make no distinction amongst any of them  and to God we have surrendered ourselves.” (Sura 2:136; also 43:59 and 3:84)  The Qur’an does not tell much about the message and the teachings of  Jesus. He is supposed to have brought to his people the same message that  was brought by Muhammad and other prophets to their people. It is the  message about the one supreme, transcendent God, whose power and  goodness require obedience and gratitude. This God is a God of justice,
rewarding the obedient and punishing the evildoers. God has taught Jesus  “the Torah and the Gospel” (Sura 3:48). In his teaching Jesus is called to  confirm the Torah and to bring to his people the gospel “wherein is guidance  and light” (5:46). Jesus also points to the future, to the coming of a new  prophet, whose name is Ahmad (=Muhammad=the praised one). “And of  Jesus, who said to the Israelites: ! am sent forth to you by God to confirm  the Torah already revealed and to give news of a messenger that will come  after me whose name is Ahmad’ ” (61:6).
Jesus faces the same kind of opposition as other prophets, who are  accused of being liars (Sura 35:4, 25), of being possessed by jinn (23:70), and  of performing magic (5:110). The hostility of Jews finds expression in the  plan to kill Jesus. The only passage where we can read about “the crucifixion”  is Sura 4:150″163. This passage dates from the time of very strained relations  with the Jews in Medina. Suras 2, 3, 4, and 5 reflect these tensions. In Sura  4:150″163, attention is focused on the disobedience of Jews in the past in the  time of Moses, their breaking of the covenant, the breaking of the Sabbath”  laws, the killing of prophets, and the “the uttering of a monstrous falsehood  against Mary” (Sura 4:156). In addition to all this, Jews have also declared:

“We have put to death the Messiah Jesus, the son of Mary, the messenger  of God” (4:157). In response to this claim, God reveals the truth about Jesus  to Muhammad:
They did not kill him, nor did they crucify him, but they thought they did  [Arabic: shubbiha lahum]. Those that disagreed about him were in doubt  concerning his death, for what they knew about it was sheer conjecture; they  were not sure that they had slain him. God lifted him up to his presence; he  is mighty and wise. (Sura 4:157, 158)

In his Qur’an translation, Rudi Paret (1963) translates these verses in a  slightly different way:

Aber sie haben ihn (in Wirklichkeit) nicht getötet und (auch) nicht gekreuzigt.
Vielmehr erschien ihnen (ein anderer) ähnlich (so dasz sie ihn mit Jeus  verwechselten und töteten). Und diejenigen, die über ihn uneins sind, sind im  Zweifel über ihn. Sie haben kein Wissen über ihn, gehen vielmehr Vermutungen  nach. Und sie haben ihn nicht mit Gewiszheit getötet. Nein, Gott hat ihn zu sich (in den Himmel) erhoben. Gott ist mächtig und weise.
(1963:83-84)
[Translation: But (in reality) they neither killed (nor) crucified him. Rather (a  different one) appeared, like him (so that they confused him with Jesus and  killed him). And those who are divided about him are (really) in doubt about  him. They have no knowledge of him and pursue speculations. And they have  not killed him with certainty. No, God took him up to himself (into heaven).God is powerful and wise.]’

There are three questions related to the intrepretation of these difficult verses.
The first question is whether Jews really made this kind of boastful statement  in regard to Jesus’ death. “Dasz die Juden ihren Anteil an der Kreuzigung  in irgendeiner Weise hochgespielt haben, dafür gibt es bei dem jetzigen  Stand unserer Kenntnisse der Altesten jüdischen Quellen keine Beweise”  (Bouman 1977:51). [Translation: With our present knowledge of the oldest  Jewish sources we have no evidence that the Jews emphasized their part in  the crucifixion.]
Why then did Muhammad speak about Jews in this way? Was it in order  to find allies among the Christians in a time of tensions with the Jews?
The second question is how the Arabic words shubbiha lahum should be  translated. The quoted translation (Dawood 1979) translates: “they thought  they did.” Paret’s (1963) translation is “erschien ihnen (ein anderer) ähnlich.”
[Translation: a different one appeared, like him.] Masson (1958:330) translates:
“Les Juifs ni Tont ni tué, ni crucifié, mais cela leur est apparu ainsi  (eux mêmes sont dans le doute à ce sujet).” [Translation: The Jews have not  killed him, neither crucified him, but it seemed so to them (they themselves  are in doubt about this issue).] The Arabic root shbh is not often used in the  Qur’an. It can mean “making equal or similar” or “being doubtful, uncertain,
obscure.” Parefs (1963) translation is based on the idea that another person  was crucified instead of Jesus. Another person was made equal or similar  to Jesus. This interpretation of the crucifixion was well-known in gnostic  circles (docetism). The Qur’anic rejection of the crucifixion, however, cannot  have a gnostic background. Gnosticism has not had an impact on the birth  of Islam. It has only played a role in later heterorthodox developments in  the history of Islam (Hospers 1959:79-85). The background of the rejection  of the crucifixion is the thought that an almighty God cannot allow one of  his messengers to die such a shameful death as the death on the cross.
Dawood’s and Massone translations emphasize the thoughts of the Jews.
They thought that they had crucified Jesus, but they erroneously thought so.
It seemed so to them. The reality, however, was that God would not allow  it to happen. This interpretation, however, is now accepted by all scholars.
That becomes clear when we deal with the third question related to the  interpretation of Sura 4:157-158.
This third question is how Sura 4:157-158 relates to other verses of the  Qur’an, where we read about the death of Jesus. “I was blessed on the day  I (Jesus) was born and blessed I shall be on the day of my death” (Sura  19:33; also 3:55 and 5:117).
Zaehner (1958:195-215), Parrinder (1965), and others are of the opinion  that, according to the Qur’an, Jesus died on the cross. Jews did not do it, but  God caused Jesus to die on the cross, and after his death on the cross Jesus  was raised up high to God. This explanation is difficult to accept, in the  light of the way the Qur’an speaks about messengers of God, who when  threatened and harassed by opponents were rescued by God’s power. Why  should an almighty God cause the death of one of his messengers? Would  that not be a defeat in the eyes of those who opposed the messenger?
Maulana Muhammad Ali (1938:197), an interpreter belonging to the  Ahmadiyya movement, states that Jesus was on the cross but did not die on   the cross. The Ahmadiyya translation of Sura 4:157-158 is “they killed him not nor did they cause his death on the cross.” Jesus died a natural death,according to the Ahmadiyya explanation, at an advanced aged, after having  worked and preached for many years in the East.
The generally accepted view in Islamic circles is that the crucifixion did  not happen. Jesus was rescued by an intervening act of God. What people  intended to do did not happen because of this divine intervention. “They  plotted, but God plotted too. And of plotters God is the best” (Sura 8:30).
Jesus was taken into heaven, from where he will return to the earth to  complete his work as messenger of God, shortly before the day of judgment.
After he has completed his work, he will die a natural death. In this way,Islamic orthodoxy relates Sura 4:157-158 to the other verses in the Qur’an  which speak about the death of Jesus. This eschatological view in regard to  Jesus is based on an obscure verse in the Qur’an which says, “Jesus is a  portent of the Hour of Doom. Have no doubt about its coming” (Sura 43:61).

(TO BE CONTINUED)

Roelf S. Kuitse is Professor of Missions and World Religions at Associated Mennonite  Biblical Seminaries in Elkhart, Indiana. He has worked in theological education in  Indonesia and lived in Ghana where he participated in the Islam in Africa Project.

SOURCE  Missiology: An International Review

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TECHNAS-ZEEN DIA TOU PHILO-SOPHEIN (Ι)

 

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(ΣΥΝΕΧΙΖΕΤΑΙ)

Γ.ΑΒΡΑΜΙΔΗΣ /ΜΕΤΑΦΡΑΣΤΗΣ

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