MNEEM-EE ESTIN K M(n)EEM-ORY (C)


(being continued from 29/08/18)

Computer – Hardware

Hardware represents the physical and tangible components of a computer, i.e. the components that can be seen and touched.

Examples of Hardware are the following −

  • Input devices − keyboard, mouse, etc.
  • Output devices − printer, monitor, etc.
  • Secondary storage devices − Hard disk, CD, DVD, etc.
  • Internal components − CPU, motherboard, RAM, etc.

Relationship between Hardware and Software

  • Hardware and software are mutually dependent on each other. Both of them must work together to make a computer produce a useful output.
  • Software cannot be utilized without supporting hardware.
  • Hardware without a set of programs to operate upon cannot be utilized and is useless.
  • To get a particular job done on the computer, relevant software should be loaded into the hardware.
  • Hardware is a one-time expense.
  • Software development is very expensive and is a continuing expense.
  • Different software applications can be loaded on a hardware to run different jobs.
  • A software acts as an interface between the user and the hardware.
  • If the hardware is the ‘heart’ of a computer system, then the software is its ‘soul’. Both are complementary to each other.

Software is a set of programs, which is designed to perform a well-defined function. A program is a sequence of instructions written to solve a particular problem.

There are two types of software −

  • System Software
  • Application Software

System Software

The system software is a collection of programs designed to operate, control, and extend the processing capabilities of the computer itself. System software is generally prepared by the computer manufacturers. These software products comprise of programs written in low-level languages, which interact with the hardware at a very basic level. System software serves as the interface between the hardware and the end users.

Some examples of system software are Operating System, Compilers, Interpreter, Assemblers, etc.

Here is a list of some of the most prominent features of a system software −

  • Close to the system
  • Fast in speed
  • Difficult to design
  • Difficult to understand
  • Less interactive
  • Smaller in size
  • Difficult to manipulate
  • Generally written in low-level language

Application Software

Application software products are designed to satisfy a particular need of a particular environment. All software applications prepared in the computer lab can come under the category of Application software.

Application software may consist of a single program, such as Microsoft’s notepad for writing and editing a simple text. It may also consist of a collection of programs, often called a software package, which work together to accomplish a task, such as a spreadsheet package.

Examples of Application software are the following −

  • Payroll Software
  • Student Record Software
  • Inventory Management Software
  • Income Tax Software
  • Railways Reservation Software
  • Microsoft Office Suite Software
  • Microsoft Word
  • Microsoft Excel
  • Microsoft PowerPoint

Features of application software are as follows −

  • Close to the user
  • Easy to design
  • More interactive
  • Slow in speed
  • Generally written in high-level language
  • Easy to understand
  • Easy to manipulate and use
  • Bigger in size and requires large storage space

When we type some letters or words, the computer translates them in numbers as computers can understand only numbers. A computer can understand the positional number system where there are only a few symbols called digits and these symbols represent different values depending on the position they occupy in the number.

The value of each digit in a number can be determined using −

  • The digit
  • The position of the digit in the number
  • The base of the number system (where the base is defined as the total number of digits available in the number system)

Decimal Number System

The number system that we use in our day-to-day life is the decimal number system. Decimal number system has base 10 as it uses 10 digits from 0 to 9. In decimal number system, the successive positions to the left of the decimal point represent units, tens, hundreds, thousands, and so on.

Each position represents a specific power of the base (10). For example, the decimal number 1234 consists of the digit 4 in the units position, 3 in the tens position, 2 in the hundreds position, and 1 in the thousands position. Its value can be written as

(1 x 1000)+ (2 x 100)+ (3 x 10)+ (4 x l)
(1 x 103)+ (2 x 102)+ (3 x 101)+ (4 x l00)
1000 + 200 + 30 + 4
1234

As a computer programmer or an IT professional, you should understand the following number systems which are frequently used in computers.

S.No.Number System and Description
1Binary Number SystemBase 2. Digits used : 0, 1
2Octal Number SystemBase 8. Digits used : 0 to 7
3Hexa Decimal Number SystemBase 16. Digits used: 0 to 9, Letters used : A- F

Binary Number System

Characteristics of the binary number system are as follows −

  • Uses two digits, 0 and 1
  • Also called as base 2 number system
  • Each position in a binary number represents a 0 power of the base (2). Example 20
  • Last position in a binary number represents a x power of the base (2). Example 2x where x represents the last position – 1.

Example

Binary Number: 101012

Calculating Decimal Equivalent −

StepBinary NumberDecimal Number
Step 1101012((1 x 24) + (0 x 23) + (1 x 22) + (0 x 21) + (1 x 20))10
Step 2101012(16 + 0 + 4 + 0 + 1)10
Step 31010122110

Note − 101012 is normally written as 10101.

Octal Number System

Characteristics of the octal number system are as follows −

  • Uses eight digits, 0,1,2,3,4,5,6,7
  • Also called as base 8 number system
  • Each position in an octal number represents a 0 power of the base (8). Example 80
  • Last position in an octal number represents a x power of the base (8). Example 8x where x represents the last position – 1

Example

Octal Number: 125708

Calculating Decimal Equivalent −

StepOctal NumberDecimal Number
Step 1125708((1 x 84) + (2 x 83) + (5 x 82) + (7 x 81) + (0 x 80))10
Step 2125708(4096 + 1024 + 320 + 56 + 0)10
Step 3125708549610

Note − 125708 is normally written as 12570.

Hexadecimal Number System

Characteristics of hexadecimal number system are as follows −

  • Uses 10 digits and 6 letters, 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, A, B, C, D, E, F
  • Letters represent the numbers starting from 10. A = 10. B = 11, C = 12, D = 13, E = 14, F = 15
  • Also called as base 16 number system
  • Each position in a hexadecimal number represents a 0 power of the base (16). Example, 160
  • Last position in a hexadecimal number represents a x power of the base (16). Example 16x where x represents the last position – 1

Example

Hexadecimal Number: 19FDE16

Calculating Decimal Equivalent −

StepBinary NumberDecimal Number
Step 119FDE16((1 x 164) + (9 x 163) + (F x 162) + (D x 161) + (E x 160))10
Step 219FDE16((1 x 164) + (9 x 163) + (15 x 162) + (13 x 161) + (14 x 160))10
Step 319FDE16(65536+ 36864 + 3840 + 208 + 14)10
Step 419FDE1610646210

Note − 19FDE16 is normally written as 19FDE.

There are many methods or techniques which can be used to convert numbers from one base to another. In this chapter, we’ll demonstrate the following −

  • Decimal to Other Base System
  • Other Base System to Decimal
  • Other Base System to Non-Decimal
  • Shortcut method – Binary to Octal
  • Shortcut method – Octal to Binary
  • Shortcut method – Binary to Hexadecimal
  • Shortcut method – Hexadecimal to Binary

Decimal to Other Base System

Step 1 − Divide the decimal number to be converted by the value of the new base.

Step 2 − Get the remainder from Step 1 as the rightmost digit (least significant digit) of the new base number.

Step 3 − Divide the quotient of the previous divide by the new base.

Step 4 − Record the remainder from Step 3 as the next digit (to the left) of the new base number.

Repeat Steps 3 and 4, getting remainders from right to left, until the quotient becomes zero in Step 3.

The last remainder thus obtained will be the Most Significant Digit (MSD) of the new base number.

Example

Decimal Number: 2910

Calculating Binary Equivalent −

StepOperationResultRemainder
Step 129 / 2141
Step 214 / 270
Step 37 / 231
Step 43 / 211
Step 51 / 201

As mentioned in Steps 2 and 4, the remainders have to be arranged in the reverse order so that the first remainder becomes the Least Significant Digit (LSD) and the last remainder becomes the Most Significant Digit (MSD).

Decimal Number : 2910 = Binary Number : 111012.

Other Base System to Decimal System

Step 1 − Determine the column (positional) value of each digit (this depends on the position of the digit and the base of the number system).

Step 2 − Multiply the obtained column values (in Step 1) by the digits in the corresponding columns.

Step 3 − Sum the products calculated in Step 2. The total is the equivalent value in decimal.

Example

Binary Number: 111012

Calculating Decimal Equivalent −

StepBinary NumberDecimal Number
Step 1111012((1 x 24) + (1 x 23) + (1 x 22) + (0 x 21) + (1 x 20))10
Step 2111012(16 + 8 + 4 + 0 + 1)10
Step 31110122910

Binary Number : 111012 = Decimal Number : 2910

Other Base System to Non-Decimal System

Step 1 − Convert the original number to a decimal number (base 10).

Step 2 − Convert the decimal number so obtained to the new base number.

Example

Octal Number : 258

Calculating Binary Equivalent −

Step 1 – Convert to Decimal

StepOctal NumberDecimal Number
Step 1258((2 x 81) + (5 x 80))10
Step 2258(16 + 5)10
Step 32582110

Octal Number : 258 = Decimal Number : 2110

Step 2 – Convert Decimal to Binary

StepOperationResultRemainder
Step 121 / 2101
Step 210 / 250
Step 35 / 221
Step 42 / 210
Step 51 / 201

Decimal Number : 2110 = Binary Number : 101012

Octal Number : 258 = Binary Number : 101012

Shortcut Method ─ Binary to Octal

Step 1 − Divide the binary digits into groups of three (starting from the right).

Step 2 − Convert each group of three binary digits to one octal digit.

Example

Binary Number : 101012

Calculating Octal Equivalent −

StepBinary NumberOctal Number
Step 1101012010 101
Step 210101228 58
Step 3101012258

Binary Number : 101012 = Octal Number : 258

Shortcut Method ─ Octal to Binary

Step 1 − Convert each octal digit to a 3-digit binary number (the octal digits may be treated as decimal for this conversion).

Step 2 − Combine all the resulting binary groups (of 3 digits each) into a single binary number.

Example

Octal Number : 258

Calculating Binary Equivalent −

StepOctal NumberBinary Number
Step 1258210 510
Step 22580102 1012
Step 32580101012

Octal Number : 258 = Binary Number : 101012

Shortcut Method ─ Binary to Hexadecimal

Step 1 − Divide the binary digits into groups of four (starting from the right).

Step 2 − Convert each group of four binary digits to one hexadecimal symbol.

Example

Binary Number : 101012

Calculating hexadecimal Equivalent −

StepBinary NumberHexadecimal Number
Step 11010120001 0101
Step 2101012110 510
Step 31010121516

Binary Number : 101012 = Hexadecimal Number : 1516

Shortcut Method – Hexadecimal to Binary

Step 1 − Convert each hexadecimal digit to a 4-digit binary number (the hexadecimal digits may be treated as decimal for this conversion).

Step 2 − Combine all the resulting binary groups (of 4 digits each) into a single binary number.

Example

Hexadecimal Number : 1516

Calculating Binary Equivalent −

StepHexadecimal NumberBinary Number
Step 11516110 510
Step 2151600012 01012
Step 31516000101012

Hexadecimal Number : 1516 = Binary Number : 101012

Data can be defined as a representation of facts, concepts, or instructions in a formalized manner, which should be suitable for communication, interpretation, or processing by human or electronic machine.

Data is represented with the help of characters such as alphabets (A-Z, a-z), digits (0-9) or special characters (+,-,/,*,<,>,= etc.)

What is Information?

Information is organized or classified data, which has some meaningful values for the receiver. Information is the processed data on which decisions and actions are based.

For the decision to be meaningful, the processed data must qualify for the following characteristics −

  • Timely − Information should be available when required.
  • Accuracy − Information should be accurate.
  • Completeness − Information should be complete.
Computer Data Processing

Data Processing Cycle

Data processing is the re-structuring or re-ordering of data by people or machine to increase their usefulness and add values for a particular purpose. Data processing consists of the following basic steps – input, processing, and output. These three steps constitute the data processing cycle.

Computer Data
  • Input − In this step, the input data is prepared in some convenient form for processing. The form will depend on the processing machine. For example, when electronic computers are used, the input data can be recorded on any one of the several types of input medium, such as magnetic disks, tapes, and so on.
  • Processing − In this step, the input data is changed to produce data in a more useful form. For example, pay-checks can be calculated from the time cards, or a summary of sales for the month can be calculated from the sales orders.
  • Output − At this stage, the result of the proceeding processing step is collected. The particular form of the output data depends on the use of the data. For example, output data may be pay-checks for employees.

(TO BE CONTINUED)

SOURCE  https://www.tutorialspoint.com

About sooteris kyritsis

Job title: (f)PHELLOW OF SOPHIA Profession: RESEARCHER Company: ANTHROOPISMOS Favorite quote: "ITS TIME FOR KOSMOPOLITANS(=HELLINES) TO FLY IN SPACE." Interested in: Activity Partners, Friends Fashion: Classic Humor: Friendly Places lived: EN THE HIGHLANDS OF KOSMOS THROUGH THE DARKNESS OF AMENTHE
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