MNEEM-EE ESTIN K M(n)EEM-ORY (b)


(being continued from 14/04/17)

Motherboard

The motherboard serves as a single platform to connect all of the parts of a computer together. It connects the CPU, memory, hard drives, optical drives, video card, sound card, and other ports and expansion cards directly or via cables. It can be considered as the backbone of a computer.

 

Features of Motherboard

A motherboard comes with following features −

  • Motherboard varies greatly in supporting various types of components.

  • Motherboard supports a single type of CPU and few types of memories.

  • Video cards, hard disks, sound cards have to be compatible with the motherboard to function properly.

  • Motherboards, cases, and power supplies must be compatible to work properly together.

Popular Manufacturers

Following are the popular manufacturers of the motherboard.

  • Intel
  • ASUS
  • AOpen
  • ABIT
  • Biostar
  • Gigabyte
  • MSI

Description of Motherboard

The motherboard is mounted inside the case and is securely attached via small screws through pre-drilled holes. Motherboard contains ports to connect all of the internal components. It provides a single socket for CPU, whereas for memory, normally one or more slots are available. Motherboards provide ports to attach the floppy drive, hard drive, and optical drives via ribbon cables. Motherboard carries fans and a special port designed for power supply.

There is a peripheral card slot in front of the motherboard using which video cards, sound cards, and other expansion cards can be connected to the motherboard.

On the left side, motherboards carry a number of ports to connect the monitor, printer, mouse, keyboard, speaker, and network cables. Motherboards also provide USB ports, which allow compatible devices to be connected in plug-in/plug-out fashion. For example, pen drive, digital cameras, etc.

Memory Units

Memory unit is the amount of data that can be stored in the storage unit. This storage capacity is expressed in terms of Bytes.

The following table explains the main memory storage units −

S.No.
Unit & Description

1Bit (Binary Digit)

A binary digit is logical 0 and 1 representing a passive or an active state of a component in an electric circuit.

2Nibble

A group of 4 bits is called nibble.

3Byte

A group of 8 bits is called byte. A byte is the smallest unit, which can represent a data item or a character.

4Word

A computer word, like a byte, is a group of fixed number of bits processed as a unit, which varies from computer to computer but is fixed for each computer.

The length of a computer word is called word-size or word length. It may be as small as 8 bits or may be as long as 96 bits. A computer stores the information in the form of computer words.

The following table lists some higher storage units −

S.No.
Unit & Description

1Kilobyte (KB)

1 KB = 1024 Bytes

2Megabyte (MB)

1 MB = 1024 KB

3GigaByte (GB)

1 GB = 1024 MB

4TeraByte (TB)

1 TB = 1024 GB

5PetaByte (PB)

1 PB = 1024 TB

 

Ports

A port is a physical docking point using which an external device can be connected to the computer. It can also be programmatic docking point through which information flows from a program to the computer or over the Internet.

Characteristics of Ports

A port has the following characteristics −

  • External devices are connected to a computer using cables and ports.

  • Ports are slots on the motherboard into which a cable of external device is plugged in.

  • Examples of external devices attached via ports are the mouse, keyboard, monitor, microphone, speakers, etc.

Let us now discuss a few important types of ports −

Serial Port

  • Used for external modems and older computer mouse

  • Two versions: 9 pin, 25 pin model

  • Data travels at 115 kilobits per second

Parallel Port

  • Used for scanners and printers

  • Also called printer port

  • 25 pin model

  • IEEE 1284-compliant Centronics port

PS/2 Port

  • Used for old computer keyboard and mouse

  • Also called mouse port

  • Most of the old computers provide two PS/2 port, each for the mouse and keyboard

  • IEEE 1284-compliant Centronics port

Universal Serial Bus (or USB) Port

  • It can connect all kinds of external USB devices such as external hard disk, printer, scanner, mouse, keyboard, etc.

  • It was introduced in 1997.

  • Most of the computers provide two USB ports as minimum.

  • Data travels at 12 megabits per seconds.

  • USB compliant devices can get power from a USB port.

VGA Port

  • Connects monitor to a computer’s video card.

  • It has 15 holes.

  • Similar to the serial port connector. However, serial port connector has pins, VGA port has holes.

Power Connector

  • Three-pronged plug.

  • Connects to the computer’s power cable that plugs into a power bar or wall socket.

Firewire Port

  • Transfers large amount of data at very fast speed.

  • Connects camcorders and video equipment to the computer.

  • Data travels at 400 to 800 megabits per seconds.

  • Invented by Apple.

  • It has three variants: 4-Pin FireWire 400 connector, 6-Pin FireWire 400 connector, and 9-Pin FireWire 800 connector.

Modem Port

  • Connects a PC’s modem to the telephone network.

Ethernet Port

  • Connects to a network and high speed Internet.

  • Connects the network cable to a computer.

  • This port resides on an Ethernet Card.

  • Data travels at 10 megabits to 1000 megabits per seconds depending upon the network bandwidth.

Game Port

  • Connect a joystick to a PC

  • Now replaced by USB

Digital Video Interface, DVI port

  • Connects Flat panel LCD monitor to the computer’s high-end video graphic cards.

  • Very popular among video card manufacturers.

Sockets

  • Sockets connect the microphone and speakers to the sound card of the computer.

 

(TO BE CONTINUED)

SOURCE  https://www.tutorialspoint.com

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About sooteris kyritsis

Job title: (f)PHELLOW OF SOPHIA Profession: RESEARCHER Company: ANTHROOPISMOS Favorite quote: "ITS TIME FOR KOSMOPOLITANS(=HELLINES) TO FLY IN SPACE." Interested in: Activity Partners, Friends Fashion: Classic Humor: Friendly Places lived: EN THE HIGHLANDS OF KOSMOS THROUGH THE DARKNESS OF AMENTHE
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