(BEING CONTINUED FROM 16/09/16)
- the Damnoni tribe – whose name literally means “men under the goddess of the deep”. Could be a reference to them being miners. Associated with Drumchapel & settled in Ayrshire, Renfrewshire, Lanarkshire, Dumbartonshire & parts of Stirlingshire, Devon, Britanny & Ireland. They spoke P-Celtic similar to Welsh and say they were descended from Semion of the Nemeds. Nemedians revolted against the Formorians but lost & the survivors left Ireland to colonize Britain. When they return they are now called Fir Bolgs and the People of Dana. Interestingly the Strathclyde Damnoni have their own myths.
- the Decantes tribe – Decantes (Lat.), Dekantai (Gr.) Also spelled Decantae or Decanti. Modern day Decan. This tribe lived north of the Caledonii there was also a tribe with the same name that existed in North Wales according to Rivet and Smith. Their name means the ‘noble ones’.
- the Durotrige tribe – lived in the Dorset area of South Britain.
- the Daesitiate tribe / also called Dacii (Dacians by the Romans)- Wolf people / descendants of wolf. They were unquestionably stretched from the Southern Adriatic to the Danube in the North. To this day a large number of their fortress remains and it’s almost sure that the Daesitiates & their Romanized descendants lived in them.
- the Eburones tribe -Boar People according to . And again according to Christine O’keefe they were (Winter Goddess People). Both sounds a little fluffy to me since the tribe was Belgic, very Celtic back then, not quite developed the full Dutch language yet. They also lived around Namur, France. Eburoni: *Eibe means yew and is from the place names around the area this the most likely meaning, not ‘boar‘. In Dutch. ‘Boer’ = farmer, also not boar. Eburon is plural of Ebur or eibboer. During the late Roman Empire the region was called Taxandria(sometimes Toxandria) in Latin: taxus also means yew . Yew grows reasonably well upon sandy soils and we know most of their territory is sandy. This tribe’s farmers was also know for growing and selling yew to supplement their income. Yew was and still is the traditional wood of making archery bows like the famous English longbow. In fact, Yew from Taxandria was famous throughout Gaul. The Eburonians used a special para-Brythonic name: eburo for Yew. It is important to note that these Northern European tribes did not call themselves the names given to them by the Romans. For example, the Eburoni called that by Romans, called themselves Tunger Tribe (also spelled Tungri) = meaning “those who speak our tongue”. According to Caesar, they were Germanic but we know that these tribes all mixed and moved. In his day though, these people inflicted the greatest military defeat to Caesar during his campaign in ‘Gaul’. Some 7500 men were slaughtered. Sadly, as a measure of revenge, Caesar officially declared genocide, and wanted to wipe out the entire tribe. But we know that a complete genocide was never able to carry through because many people were once one. Later, the Eburoni re-appeared declaring their own name the Tungri written in the official Roman nomenclature, actually honouring the ‘divine’ Caesar. Again, you cannot believe everything written from the period, especially when they are written by those who have a predujice against these people. The names of this tribes Germanic Kings, also shows proof that all these tribes were once Celtic – Ambiorix and Catuvolcus. The upper echelons were Celtic with both language and culture. Another proof is their tribal name meaning ‘yew’-tree’ This gives Caesar’s story some deeper meaning – that King Catuvolcus committed suicide by taking in the poisonous juice from the yew-tree an extra layer of meaning. The other issue saying that the Germanic language of a later era – ebura means ‘boar’, is not well represented in any ancient record but there is much more evidence backing up the local peoples in that time spoke a form of Gaulish language. Even Dutch proununciation comes from a Gallo-Roman accent when the Eburones no longer existed.
- the Epidii tribe – lived by Kintyre. name means Horse people/people of the horse. Lived next to the Damnoni tribe. Most likely horse breeders and their gods would have been the constellation now called Pegusus but by them called Epona. This is hard to reference or prove outside Roman Empire and writings so this is my opinion and best educated guess at this time. Rhiannon (Reti, Reta, riata) means riding a horse. Similar tribe had a leader Reuda and Bede states “They are still called Dalreudini after this leader.”
- the Eravisci tribe – occupied Hungary and Danube river. Very strongly Celtic even during Roman invasions. Hungarian-Germanic Celts.
- the Gamanrad tribe – means Stork People.
- the Graioceli tribe – lived in Northwestern Piedmont in the Alps
- the Helvetii tribe- who lived in the Switzerland area – a Celt-Norse culture as they did moved to Gaul, then back again.
- the Harpstedt tribe – a representation of early Germans which developed a sound change which differenciated from the Gaelic /Indo European dialects in this general area. They lived right at the foot of the Danish penisula.
- the Iceni tribe – (sometimes spelled Eceni) we all know well as from this tribe comes the famous Celtic warrior woman called Queen Boudicca (original spelling – Proto-Celtic). My husband says I remind him of her…..I’m not so sure lol. They are from East England in the Norfolk / Suffolk areas & quite wealthy tribe, even making their own coins. Due to these coins we know they were a horse worshiping tribe. English Celts or Britons.
- the Insubre tribe – Western Lombardy (Milan)
- the Lepontii tribe – Northern Lombardy, North-eastern Piedmont and Switzerland in the Lepontine Alps.
- the Ligones tribe – North-eastern Emilia-Romagna (Ferrara), Po Valley
- the Lugi tribe – they lived next to the Decantes and joined to the territory of the Cornavi. Their nme means Raven people.
- the Marini (Morini) – the tribe’s name means people of the is derived from the ‘sea’ or ‘lake’ but their name does not mean from the sea, it means “people from the salty marshes” (salt from the sea). The German style of adding ‘in’ makes it plural. This is a Belgium tribe.
- the Menapii – Name means = people of a commune next to water. The Menapii is NOT a tribe but several independant villages with different communes. (a commune or mens (meens) = a main large common house where people gathered, justice was spoken, decisions proposed, discussed and voted.) The middle syllable refers to ‘water’. Some towns in Holland still contain words that refer to water – Apeldoorn (Appe+ thorn) = thorny [field] near water, even the famous avalon refers to being by or surrounded by water. The Menapii ‘waters’ stretched from the North Sea up to Germany. Caesar described them as Germanic and had great trouble in subduing them because he had to conquer village after village as each tribal commune could decide independently whether to surrender or not. So, despite popular belief, the Menapii were not a tribe in the classic sense of the word but more a string of villages. They were found from the mouth of the Scheldt river up to the modern border with Germany along the Rhine.
- the Miathi tribe – may have sprung from the Votadini who would’ve been divided by the Antonine Wall but this is unsure. The reason for my judgement here is Cassius Dio in describing an evnt in 208 says “There are two races of Britons, the Calendonians and the Maeatians.” Their name also reflects this separation as it means “People of the larger part”. Dun Miathi means “hill for of the Miathi”. Stirling was known once as Manau or Manaw in the place name Clackmannan, sometimes called Manau Goddodin. In the 5th century, the Royal dynasty of Gwynedd was led by a Chieftain of the Manaw Gododdin who brought his warband to wales to aid his cousins there against the Irish. Geneticist James Wilson backs this up by finding an unusual haplotype within the Y-dna in John McEwans chart that seem to be localized around Stirling reflecting the Miathi. This might explain the gold torcs found there dating to 300-100 BCE which were irish and Scottish in style. The other torcs, however, were more exotic, possibly from south-west france and one from the Mediterranean. Either way this tribe were Atlantic Broch builders at one time.
- the Nervii tribe -these were Belgium Celts from northern Gaul. Sadly they were wiped out by Ceasar but put up a tremendous fight. Nervius is a single person from the tribe. (plural: Nervii) Th first syllable in their name means something close to ‘near activity’ or ‘productive site’. Or it could be closer to the Dutch verb ‘to make money’ or ‘to happy benefit’ which originally came from ‘farm, factory, enterprise’. The last syllable is from a word meaning ‘woven panel, wall, house’ and corresponds with ‘wattle’ The word ‘Nervia’ means therefore: people from the land of the (big) farms. The modern region, where they lived is still known for its castle farms. During the battle, the three castle farms on the battlefield played a decisive role.
- the Orobii or Orumbovii tribe – lived in Central Lombardy (Bergamo)
- the Orcoi tribe – lived in the Orcades islands once called Insi Orc now called Orkney. This tribe’s name means ‘people of the pig’ which could refer to a number of legends from Arthurian cults of Meyrddin to Cerridwen the sea pig goddess, but may be in reference to wild boar. Orkney was later taken by the Vikings. An in old Norse ‘orkn’ means seal. Thus Celtic version could have been a seal Goddess. Irkney islanders later brought back from Canada, Native American wives.
- the Parisii tribe – lived where Paris is today. French Celts.
- the Picts – this is NOT a tribe. This is a name given to describe the tribes of the Scotti, Caledonii, and other tribes North of the Roman border. All of these so close to each other, painted with woad for blue and iron ochre for other colours.
- the Remi tribe – Elected their leaders annually.
- the Salassi tribe – lived in Aosta Valley and Canavese – Northern Piedmont.
- the Scordisci tribe – a powerful Celtic tribe who tried to settle in Greece but went back to central Europe between the rivers Drava and Sava. Their name was Latinized to Scordisci which meant ‘evening vespers’.
- the Scotti – not a tribe are the Scottish people whom are actually the Irish people from Ireland who moved across to Scotland area. The North-eastern tip of Scotland is noted for its brochs (tall, round, stone built, hollow walled Iron age tower houses. They were also found in Skye, Orkney, Outer Hebrides and Shetland Islands and often close to the sea. The Celts living in what is now called Spain also had these brochs but even more complex.
- the Seguini (or Cottii) tribe – Western Piedmont on Cottian Alps (Susa). This tribe had Germanic and Italian Celts. One had the assistance of the Germanic chieftain named Ariovistus in battle sometimes.The other made a small independant kingdom in northwestern Italy which included a very important road connecting Gaul to it. It became part of the Roman Empire in 64 AD. Now to add to the confusion there is also the Cotti and this was a large and strong tribe of the Scots who were already mixed with Picts. Whether these others were once all come from there originally, I have not uncovered this mystery as yet.
- the Senones tribe – S-eastern Emilia-Romagna (Rimini) & Northern Marche (Senigallia).
- the Smertae tribe – (Smertai) Various meanings I found for this tribe’s name were “far-sighted ones” and “providers”. They lived west of the Lugi.
- the Taecali tribe – lived north of the Vacomagi tribe in a town named Devana. Their name might be after a God named Taxis and the town named after the River Deva, (present day Dee), which simply means Goddess.
- the Taurini tribe – Piedmont (Turin area) . People of the Bull, Bull people. Again showing reference to zodiac or sky gods.
- the Taurisci tribe – People of the Bull, Bull people.
- the Tochrad tribe – means Boar People.
- the Treveri tribe – Treveri means “people of the forest villages.” Their alleged capital was the modern city of Trier in Germany. This place was actually a civitas, which was most probably founded just outside the traditional realm of the Treverians, again for political reasons. The Treverians are known to be the ancestors of the modern people of Luxemburg. Luxemburg is still a land of forests. The original land of the Treveri was bigger: It stretched way into modern Belgium and once comprised most of the east part of the modern Ardennes.This is a Belgium Tribe.
- the Trinovantes tribe – were in eastern England just north of the Thames.
- the Una tribe – means “Sun people” according to according to Christine O-Keefe. She says Una Bluebell are flowers that grow but doesn’t state whether they grew in their area which was by the Una river in Yugoslavia. These Celts called this land Dalmatia (Leaf land). I looked it up myself and the name seems to meanlamb people but who knows on the net people post whatever for name meanings these days so don’t quote me, but I could be right lol. Just showing you to not believe everything you read as new info surfaces all the time!!
- the Vaccael tribe – means the slender Goddess people according to Christine. According to whoever wrote the wikipedia for them it is more likely to mean slayer people. Celtic tribe living in Yugoslavia by the Vuka river. They were also in Spain as the Vacaei tribe but could be two different tribes all together. The spain tribe were strict egalitarians, very warlike and practiced land reform and food distribution.
- the Vacomagi – Lived next to the Caledonii in Bannatia, Tamia, and Tuesia. Their name means ‘inhabitants of the curved fields’. They set up a camp at one time which might shed more light on what they were about called “Pinnata camp which meant “camp of the feathered emblem’.
- the Venicones – a tribe south of the Vacomagi living in a town called Orrea. Once a Roman fort whith a Granary providing food to the fleet. Their name means ‘kindred hounds’ in reference to hunting hounds or hounds of the hunt.
- the Venetii tribe – this was a maritime tribe who loved to trade around Amorican peninsula who were defeated by Ceasar at sea and those who survived were sold as slaves.
- the Vertamocorii tribe – Eastern Piedmont (Novara)
- the Verturiones (Lat) Fortrinn (Gaelic), Waerteras (OE) – Pictish tribe as they were divided into Dicalidones and Veruriones. Lived in shores of Moray Firth and were the core of Pictish Kingdom. Bridei was their earliest noted King and was said to be the son of Beli. Their name means ‘very powerful”.
- the Volcae tribe – were from central Europe and some of this tribe branched off and formed the Volcae Tectosages and one part went to Gaul (France) and the other Anatolia. Formed a Turkish Celtic tribe and French Celts.
(TO BE CONTINUED)
THANK YOU BRAHVA FOR YOUR INTERESTING WORK
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