1. ITALIAN, THE FIRST RESIDENT of the APENNINE PENINSULA
According to mythology, Sicily’s first habitant was the God Kronos (Saturn in Latin), the father of Zeus. He died in the island, after the horrible “Titanomahia”, that brought his son Zeus (Jupiter) in the throne of Gods. In the mountain of S.Calogero, north west of Agrigento, is found the grave of Kronos, well known as Cronion. (Klimis from Alexandria, “against Greeks”, p-30).
(In Greek, and according to Plato-book “kratylos”- the word mythology means the real –ancient history. “ Mythology is a science, written with codes…”. So that’s why the Greek has another word for the fairy tails. The Paramythi, and Para mythology).
As first residents of Sicily and N. Italy were reported by all the ancient writers, (Greeks and Roman writers), the Greeks.
Beginning from the prehistory, very before the 3.000 b.C. and as it is reported in the ancient manuscripts “Nostoi” and “Tilegoneia” the first human, the fabulous ITALOS, son of Tilegonos and Pennelope, grandson of Oinotros, was arrived, in a small peninsula, in the southern coast of the Apennine mountains, that were named Vrettia (today Calabria = good breeze). The Italos was the first resident and at the same time the first Greek that was inaugurate in the Apennine peninsula, which later receives her name from this fabulous Greek settlement. (Italos in the Aeolian dialect mean the owner of good and many Cows. Italo=Ox,Cow, Tavros,Vetuli, Italo…). (Hesyhios from Alexandria, lexicon of archaic Greek Dialects).
When the Italian and the other Greeks who came with him (The Pelasgians), arrived in this peninsula, established a state, the “state of Oinotri” and he became the king of Pelasgian people of Oinotri, (Virgil Aineias, A-530).
The VRETTIA, was an ancient Greek Goddess, a Nymph who was emigrate in the place called Vrettia, current Calabria, from the Mysia, region of Asia Minor (Eleyceroydakis encyclopedical lexicon). The Vrettioi inaugurated in the same place where was inaugurate the Italian itself and give their name to the region, until it is renamed in the medieval ages, to Calabria.
According to mythology, Vrettos was son of Herakles and Valite, daughter of Valitos. (Stefanos Byzantios, lexikon…).The Vrettioi was also Greeks and Greek speaking population and the many currencies excavations, in the current Calabria, do not leave absolutely no one drought, that, everything is written in the mythology for them, is the truth , and absolutely real history
The KALAVRIA. In the Peloponiso, in the small peninsula of Trizina, exist a green island by name kalavria. The current Kalavria was created at the tertiary period (11 millions years ago).
In the era of the kings Anthas and Yperis (1250 b.C), was named Yperi or Ypereia, and also Skelerdeia, (that means SKELIA>SIKELIA( sicily)!!!
The name Kalavria or Kalariei or Kalavrea, was an oldest name a lot of years before the 1250 b.C. This name perhaps is taken from the “good breeze” which is always present in the Saronikos golf, or from the Kalavro or Kalavrian, who was son of Poseidon (Neptune in Latin), and as testify various elements he was the grandson of the Arcadian and the Leanere, who lived in the region since 1290 b.C.
An other mythological source says that the Calabrian was son of Evrymedis, and grandson of Aganos – all descendants of Pelasgos. It appears, therefore, that the Arcadians came in the region around the 1290 b.C. not as conquerors but as settlements.
When the two brothers from Arcadia, Pittheas and Troizinios, arrived in the region, Pittheas penetrate in the peninsula Trizinia and became king of the city of Anthea.
Antheas, the fallen king of Anthea- and his son Aetios, were forced to leave the Troizinia and escape to Asia Minor where, with some other people, found the city of Halikarnassos (The birthplace of Herodotos).
After Anthea, Pittheas occupies and the other city, the Ypereia. Then, Yperis, the fallen king of Ypereia was forced with other Kalavrians and Achaeans to escape in the south Italy.
He established first the city HYPERIA in Sicily, and after that penetrate in to Calabria
By them, the entire region was named CALABRIA. KALAVRIA at this times was the current Apulia (about 1250 b.c.). Later, they found also the city Poseidonia in the Kalavria (Medieval-Byzantine- and current, region of “Vasilicata”). In the same Italian region today, exists also a mountain with the name Poros (Poros is the current name of a small city, next to ancient Hypereia in the Peloponessian Kalavria).
When precisely was resided the Peloponesian Kalavria it is not been ascertained. In any case excavations who started in 1894, brought in the light elements that testify that begins at the Neolithic period. In 2002 the Kokoreli excavations, came to testify everything that adds new positive elements.
The fabulus Kalavros (Calabrian) is also reported as son of Zeus, while as son of Neptune the Messapios, who moved in southern Italy from the Island Eubea and Beotia, where exist until nowdays the Mountain “Messapion”, the river “Messapios” in Eubea, and the citi of “Messapion” .
Nonos the Panopolitis, (from the Panopolis of Egypt), who wrote the history of God Dionyssos in 40 volumes and report us for prehistorically elements, (before the 3.000 b.C.) it reports how: after the flood of Deykalion, restorer of human life in Sicily was Elymos (Elymoi of Egetsa), in the N. Italy the Ahatis, while in Athens Amfiktyon, brother of Greek ( Hellinas) and son of Deykalion (Nonos A, 150).
Pafsanias reports how the Oinotos, grandson of Defkalion and son of Lykaon of Arkadia, left with boats from his homeland in Greece, and arrived in Apennine and the country that put under his control named Oinotria. Grandson of Oinotros was the fabulius Italian (Pafsanias. Arcadica, 3).
MESSAPIOI were Pelasgians who came from the Peloponisos, Eubea and Beotia to. The Peloponesos had another name at this years. It was called Apia . (Messapia = the country that laid between two Seas, or two rivers). In Greece exist today a lot of toponymes and hydronymes with this name. The Messapion Mountain, in the borders of Chalcis-Viotia (70 km north of Athens), the Messapios river that springs from mountain Dirfys of Eubea and another Messapios river in the western Crete, near the village Lappa. Certainly the Messapians spoke 100% a Greek language, element that confirm all, without exception, the excavations and the stone scripts.
And IAPYGAS, the patriarh of the IAPYGES was Greek. The name Iapyx, means “the shizononozefyros” (N.- NW. wind) (Aristotel.973v, 14- lexicon Dimitrakou)
Together with the Oinotros, settlement in Italy was and his brother PEUKETIOS (Pefketios), patriarh of the Pefketians which found colonies in southern regions the Apoulia, in the PEFKETIA (Pefko means The Pino tree) (Pafsanias, 4 tom, 3,5- Dionysios Alikaranseus A, 11- Apollodoros from Rodos, G, 97).
In the same time, another settlement came in the south Apenine peninsula and he was LEUKOS (White- lux- Λυκ-αυγές- Λυκ-ο-φως…) son of Talos, the cupreous giant who has guarded the island of Crete, who was killed by the Argonauts. Leukos, after the death of his father, reversed the king of Knosos Idomeneas and killed his daughter. Idomeneas was forced to leave Crete and escape to the south Italy in order to save his life.
And Leukos however was forced to follow the street of Idomeneas after while. The destructions that he made in Crete caused general dissatisfaction, so he must also to escape in Italy were established a kingdom, and became king in the region with the name LEUKANIA (Lefkania- Loukania today).
In the sea side of Leukania use to live also the people of AUSONES (Afsones). Their patriarch was the Ausonas, who was son of Odysseus and Kalypso, or from other source, son of Atlas and Kirki.
And with all them in south Italy lived also the DAUNOS People. Patriarch of DAUNOS ( Davnos) was the Daunos, son of the King of Arcadia Lykaonas.
Diomidis, one of the Trojan warriors, after his return from Troy, left his unfaithful woman Aigialeia (Egialia) and arrived in the Daunia, where, support the Daunos with his military and received as return a part of Davnos country, to the north, and a daughter of Davnos as wife .
THE SIKANOI AND THE SIKELOI
“In the Peloponiso, in the small peninsula of Trizina, exist a green island by name kalavria. The current Kalavria was created at the tertiary period (11 millions years ago).
In the era of kings Anthas and Yperis (1250 b.C), was named Yperi or Ypereia, and also Skelerdeia, (that means SKELIA>SIKELIA > sicily)…
The ancient historian, Nonos the Panopolitis, (from the Panopolis of Egypt), who wrote the history of God Dionysos in 40 volumes and is reported in prehistory (before the 3.000 b.C.) it reports how: after the flood of Defkalion, the restorer of human existence in Sicily was the Elymos (Elymoi of Aigesta- Egesta), and in the S. Italy was the Ahatis, while in Athens was the Amfiktyon, brother of Greek ( Hellinas) and son of Defkalion (Nonos A, 150).
In Sicily now, historical and no mythologjkal, as first residents, with the significance of compact race, are reported the Cretans “Sikanoi”, who gave and their name in the island, initially as Sikania and afterwards as Sikelia (sicily). It appears that prehistorical reside in Sicily with Cretans and other races from Aegean sea, was continuous in long-lasting and possibly it begins also from 10.000 years b.C., when began the naval activity of Minoan Cretans, as revealed the archaeological discoveries from ser Arthur Evans in Crete, which confirm also the Plato and the other ancient writers, who reports the flood (kataklysmos) of Defaliona and the Atlantida (Plato, Timaios and Kritias).
In the Dictionary of Hesyhios (Dictionary of ancient Greek Dialects, that contains the ancient types of Greek words), the world Sika-nos, became from the Sika=Lakonas, or the resident of Lakedaimonia, from the word Sika, that means sword, – handnife. “Xifiris, xifoforoi Lakones… » (The capital of Laconia was the Sparta)
SIKANOS, king of the Sikanian tribe, was the son of Vriareos, who was father of Cyclops and Aitna (Etna). The Sikanos himself had three sons. The Cyklops, the Antifanis and the Polyfimos.
Aitna was a nymph of Sicily, doughter of Ouranos (Sky) and Geas (Earth). Ouranos was brother of Kronos (Saturn), who is reported as first resident of Sicily, where is laid also his grave. When the God Ifaistos (Hefestos-god of Fire and Iron- Vulcan) and Dimitra (Ceres) has a strong disagree for who will become protector of the island, Aitna intervened as arbitrator. Thus, Ifaistos took only the volcanos (Etna and Stromboli), where made his laboratory, while Dimitra (that she symbolizes the big granary of Sicily) became protector of the island!
Dimitra: The Goddess protector of Sicily. Her name is compound word from the Da-miter, emanates from the Aeolian dialect (by which it will be created thousands years later the Latin language) and means “Mother Eatrth”. (For this reason we believe that the Temple in the Egesta, was a temple in Honor of Goddess Dimitra- Mother Earth). As report to us the Homeric epos “Odysseia”, Isiodos (Hesiodos) and Diodoros the Sikeliotis, the daughter of Goddess Dimitra, the Persephone, used to play with her friends, the Nymphs in the region of the city Enna (center of Sicily).
Suddenly she saw a wonderful flower, narcissus, and she wanted it to cuts. This was however the trap that the God Pluto, god of the underground World, made to catch her.
Since then in the place of Persephoni’s kidnapping, exist a source of water, which was named “Cyani”(Azure). The Goddess Dimitra waited for 9 days the return of Persephone and then she began to look for her. And searching, she reached in the Elefsina… where she established also the eminent “Elefsinian Mysteries”.
The theory that in 10th cent.b.C. was inuagurate, coming from the northern Italy, a new race, a tribe of the Illyrian nation, called Sikeloi, is not valid, because it is not proved with no way. In order to be supported this opinion it should:
a) Exist written sources that would report the existence of this race.
b) Material archaeological discoveries, which will show to us where this supposed tribe lived before, when, how and where was moved.
In deficiency of any material proof it is certain that the name Sicily became:
*Or from the Peloponessian Skelia, place from where are emigrated to Italy the Kalavrian Skeloi or Kalavroi, to current Southern Italy and Sicily, or from corruption of the word Sikania.
*Or from this residents who were called himself “Skeloi” (Sikeloi’), because use to live in the two bangs of the narrow canal, the Scylla’s and the Hayrides (Messini and Righion- Reggio).
*Or still because in Sicily, who was the granary of Italian Peninsula, and was the island under protection and residence also of Goddess of granaries .
(Sikalis = RYE is a kind of granary – cereal, more ancient than the wheat and in the prehistorical and historical era was the basical culture in the Sicily ).
c) Etymological analysis of the original name “Sikelia”, that would confirm the any, not Greek, ethnological origin of the word and the Sicilians.
d) Some autochthon mythological traditions, with gods and heroes. Because it is impossible, to except as normal think the thesis that, the Sicilians are not Greek origin population, and from the other side, to have as gods and heroes only the Greeks. The Cretan Minos, Herakles, Hefestos, Dimitra, Persephone, Aitna (Etna), Ortygia, Kronos (Saturn), Daidalos (Dedalus), Rea… and so many others.
e) Beyond the report and archaeological excavation, the written historical and mythological sources, we found the most serious existence of a very ancient evidence in Athens. The hill “Sicily”: “Ekeito de outos ou’ poro tou asteos kai den ito megas” (It was very near to the city and was not so big). The German archaeologist Lollig believed that the hill Sicily is the current hill of Filopappos, but his locality however is the hill of old slaughterhouses, in the left bank of river Ilyssos in the borders between the suburbs Neos Cosmos and kallithea. Today there is the stadium of “Esperos” and the Panteion University. This hill was called Sicily many centuries before the archaic Greek (8th century b.c.) colonization in the island. So it is very strange the existence of this name in Athena, centuries before the Athenians colonized the Sicily.
(Trinakria is the other Greek name, who give the geographic description of the island. The three akres (ends) This name was well known from the Cycladic era, about 3.000 b.C.)
*The Archaic Greek colonization in 8th century b.C. was the forth (4) Greek colonization.
First was from the Minoan Cretans, long before 2000 b.C. In Heraclea Minoa in Sicily, city from 1.600 b.C., exist the Grave of King Minos!
Second was from the Pelasgian and Achaean tribes from Peloponesus, Beotia , Aitolia and Epirus, about 1500-1300 b.c.
Third was after the fall of Troy, from the Aeolians, (Etruscans – Tyrenians and other Greek speaking tribes, from the Asia Minor and the Islands Lemnos, Lesvos, Tenedos, Imvros and oth.)
Forth: When the Athenians, the Chakideans, the Spartans…, arrived in Sicily and south Sicily, in the 8th century b/C., found there an oldest Greek population. They found and Mycenaean and Minoan cities like Thapsos in Sicily, the island Castiglione in the golf of Napoli, the Valle di San Montano in Pithicouses islands, the Scoglio del tonno east of Tarantas, the Punta delle terrare north of Otranto (Hydrounta), the Torre Casteluccia in kallipoli, the Agripina, the Hippion Argos, and many other Minoan and Mycenaean cities, who are under archeological excavation today.
*The Phoenicians had not colonies in Sicily, but only commercial stations (Colony is a city with various population and not only solders, institutions, like temples, parliament, stadiums, hippodromes, schools and oth.). So the most known commercial station of the Phoenician, was the “Ziz”, near the Greek city of Panormos (Palermo).
st) In the documents of city Ougarit of Fenicia (Lebanon), that is constituted by plinth (brick) plates, was found a letter of her last king, the Ampourapi, to the king of Alasia (Cyprus), in which he describes the invasion that got his city in 1185 b.C. from the “Populations of the Aegean”, which he calls collective as “federation of Sikelagia” (in the Pelasgian greek: “those who live in the “Kila” = “concave”, that is to say boats) and names also as members of their Federation the Danye’n (Danaou’s=Achaean’s), the Filistines, the Sikelagia and other (Israel Finkelstain, Archaeology and old testament p.46).
In the Aigyptian temples (hieroglyfik letters) also this population is named Sekele’s. They belongs to “people of the sea”, who attack the Egypt and destroy the dynasty of Faraon at the 12 century, with their Danye’n (Danaou’s), Serden (Sardinous, or more probably Sardeious, that is to say Lydous, from the Asia Minor coasts), the Peleset from Crete (Filistaious- later Palestinians), the Loukka (Lykeious from Asia Minor) and the Teres (Etrouskans from the island of Lemnos- in front of Troia).
We cannot therefore all these to take as accidental or non exist.
*The territory of Sicily and S.Italy was (particularly) under Greek control, (Byzantine) until the 12th century, when the Greek feudarh Melos, of Varis (Bari), called the Normandians as mercenary’s, to help him to be independent from Constandinopolis.
*The Greek language dominate in the territory until the 13 century (The Lows of the German King (conqueror) of Tow Sicily’s, Frederic II, was written in Greek, to be understandable of the population, and in (scholar for the Lows) Latin (The original text -is in my position- published in Germany from the Thea Von Liebeck, Leipzig library 1977). The Petrarh came to Reggio to learn Greek, and the Englishman, humanist, Roger Bacon in his famous letter to Pop (1280), wrote that in Sicily the most places are still, compactly, Greek speaking!
*After the Synod’s of Messina (1520) and Otranro, (1580) the Sicilians, Calabrians, Apoulians … were forced to leave the Orthodox Cristianity. More than 1300 churches and monasteries, were forced to close or, to change language in their ceremonies. The Greeks became Roman Catholics, so, the Sicilians-Calabrians… lost the language and their heritage.
*In 1821, the French Bourbons, rulers of the South Italy, closed the last 16 Greek monasteries in Caldaria and Apulia.
*In 1932, the German glossolog – linguist, Gerhard Rholfs, publish his research in four Books by the titles:
a) The Hellenism in Sicily, b) The Hellenism in Caldaria, c) The Greek toponymes 4) Etymology of toponymes, name’s and of the surnames.
The Mussolini’s regime in Rome, react imminently and very strong. The books were prohibited, and the Greek speaking population from Sicily, Caldaria, Apoulia and Tsilento region of Napoli, regretted and send it in the war Fronts, in the first line.
*The most Famous Greek of current Sicily was the Luiggi Piradelo.
“… I do care the Hellas in my mine. Her spirit is consolationι and lighthouse for my soul. I am from Sicily, in other words from Greater Greece and there still exists a lot Hellas in Sicily. The measure, the harmony and the rhythm lives on her. I am of the same Hellenic heritage, even if from another place. Yes, yes don’t be surprised. My family name is Pirangellos. The Pirandello is the phonetic alteration of it, Pirangello-Pirandello…”
Luigi Piradelo to Costas Ouranis The whole interview in the magazine “Nea Estia”, No 191, December 1934 , Costas Ouranis Foundation, Plaka , Athenes Greece.
*Today, the Greeks are still presents in Sicily, with churches in all cities in eastern coast, with a monastery in Catania (mantranici), and a cultural center, and the biggest center for Hellenic studies in the world, in Palermo (Panormos).
In Calabria, Apulia and Vasilikata, where the wave of Greek renaissance is more dynamic, the Greek dialects “Griko”, and “Grekanika”, are still alive and have the support of the Italian government and the E.U.
Stephano Sotiriou, Historian, Email: firstname.lastname@example.org
In the 4th century b/C. the Greek population in Magna Grecia was about 13-15 million!