(being continued from 7/09/15)
2. Ubiquitous computing in the next decade
The effort by researchers to create a human-to-human interface through technology in the late 1980s resulted in the creation of the ubiquitous computing discipline, whose objective is to embed technology into the background of everyday life. Currently, we
are in the post-PC era where smart phones and other handheld devices are changing our environment by making it more interactive as well as informative. Mark Weiser, the forefather of Ubiquitous Computing (ubicomp), defined a smart environment  as ‘‘the
physical world that is richly and invisibly interwoven with sensors,
actuators, displays, and computational elements, embedded seamlessly I n the everyday objects of our lives, and connected through a continuous network’’.
The creation of the Internet has marked a foremost milestone towards achieving ubicomp’s vision which enables individual devices to communicate with any other device in the world. The inter-networking reveals the potential of a seemingly endless
amount of distributed computing resources and storage owned by various owners.
In contrast to Weiser’s Calm computing approach, Rogers proposes a human centric ubicomp which makes use of human creativity in exploiting the environment and extending their capabilities . He proposes a domain specific ubicomp solution when
he says—‘‘In terms of who should benefit, it is useful to think of how ubicomp technologies can be developed not for the Sal’s of the world, but for particular domains that can be set up and customized by an individual firm or organization, such as for agricultural
production, environmental restoration or retailing’’.
Caceres and Friday  discuss the progress, opportunities and challenges during the 20 year anniversary of ubicomp. They discuss the building blocks of ubicomp and the characteristics of the system to adapt to the changing world. More importantly,
they identify two critical technologies for growing the ubicomp infrastructure—Cloud Computing and the Internet of Things.
The advancements and convergence of micro-electro-mechanical systems (MEMS) technology, wireless communications, and digital electronics has resulted in the development of miniature devices having the ability to sense, compute, and communicate
wirelessly in short distances. These miniature devices called nodes interconnect to form a wireless sensor networks (WSN) and find wide ranging applications in environmental monitoring, infrastructure monitoring, traffic monitoring, retail, etc. . This has the
ability to provide a ubiquitous sensing capability which is critical in realizing the overall vision of ubicomp as outlined by Weiser .
For the realization of a complete IoT vision, efficient, secure, scalable and market oriented computing and storage resourcing is essential.
Cloud computing  is the most recent paradigm to emerge which promises reliable services delivered through next generation data centers that are based on virtualized storage technologies.
This platform acts as a receiver of data from the ubiquitous sensors; as a computer to analyze and interpret the data; as well as providing the user with easy to understand web based visualization.
The ubiquitous sensing and processing works in the background,hidden from the user.
This novel integrated Sensor–Actuator–Internet framework shall form the core technology around which a smart environment will be shaped: information generated will be shared across diverse platforms and applications, to develop a common operating
picture (COP) of an environment, where control of certain unrestricted ‘Things’ is made possible. As we move from www (static pages web) to web2 (social networking web) to web3 (ubiquitous computing web), the need for data-on-demand using sophisticated
intuitive queries increases. To take full advantage of the available Internet technology, there is a need to deploy large-scale, platform independent,wireless sensor network infrastructure that includes data management and processing, actuation and analytics. Cloud computing promises high reliability, scalability and autonomy to provide ubiquitous access, dynamic resource discovery and composability required for the next generation Internet of Things applications.
Consumers will be able to choose the service level by changing the Quality of Service parameters.
3. Definitions, trends and elements
As identified by Atzori et al. , Internet of Things can be realized in three paradigms—internet-oriented (middleware), things oriented (sensors) and semantic-oriented (knowledge). Although this type of delineation is required due to the interdisciplinary nature of the subject, the usefulness of IoT can be unleashed only in an application domain where the three paradigms intersect.
The RFID group defines the Internet of Things as
• The worldwide network of interconnected objects uniquely
addressable based on standard communication protocols.
According to Cluster of European research projects on the Internet of Things  –
• ‘Things’ are active participants in business, information and social processes where they are enabled to interact and communicate among themselves and with the environment by exchanging data and information sensed about the environment,
while reacting autonomously to the real/physical world events and influencing it by running processes that trigger actions and create services with or without direct human intervention.
According to Forrester , a smart environment –
• Uses information and communications technologies to make the critical infrastructure components and services of a city’s administration, education, healthcare, public safety, real estate, transportation and utilities more aware, interactive and efficient.
In our definition, we make the definition more user centric and do not restrict it to any standard communication protocol. This will allow long-lasting applications to be developed and deployed using the available state-of-the-art protocols at any given point in time.
Our definition of the Internet of Things for smart environments is
• Interconnection of sensing and actuating devices providing the ability to share information across platforms through a unified framework, developing a common operating picture for enabling innovative applications. This is achieved by seamless
ubiquitous sensing, data analytics and information representation with Cloud computing as the unifying framework.
Internet of Things has been identified as one of the emerging technologies in IT as noted in Gartner’s IT Hype Cycle (see Fig. 2).
A Hype Cycle  is a way to represent the emergence, adoption,maturity, and impact on applications of specific technologies. It has been forecasted that IoT will take 5–10 years for market adoption.
The popularity of different paradigms varies with time. The web search popularity, as measured by the Google search trends during the last 10 years for the terms Internet of Things, Wireless Sensor Networks and Ubiquitous Computing are shown in Fig. 3 . As
it can be seen, since IoT has come into existence, search volume is consistently increasing with the falling trend for Wireless Sensor Networks. As per Google’s search forecast (dotted line in Fig. 3), this trend is likely to continue as other enabling technologies converge to form a genuine Internet of Things.
(TO BE CONTINUED)
Jayavardhana Gubbia, Rajkumar Buyyab,∗, Slaven Marusic a, Marimuthu Palaniswami a
a Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Vic – 3010, Australia
b Department of Computing and Information Systems, The University of Melbourne, Vic – 3010, Australia
Received 8 July 2012
Received in revised form
22 December 2012
Accepted 30 January 2013
Available online 24 February 2013