(BEING CONTINUED FROM 8/12/14)
Healer Cults and Sanctuaries
Asclepius and Votive Offerings
Votive relief from Asklepieion of Piraeus, 4th century BCE. Archaeological Museum, Piraeus, Greece.
Hippocratic principles were directly opposed to magic and ritual. However, the continuing success of the cult of Asclepius throughout antiquity clearly shows that medicine was never fully divorced from religion. Beginning in the sixth century BCE, health resorts, or sanctuaries, known as Asklepia (because they were presided over by Asclepius, the god of healing) sprang up all over the Mediterranean. The cult of Asclepius was simultaneously a religion and a system of therapeutics. In the panel to the left, a temple physician massages a patient’s shoulder while a priestess, serving as a nurse, looks on.
Ex-voto tablet from Epidauros, 3rd Century BCE. Note the large vein on the leg.
Although medical treatment was free at Asklepia, a recovered patient was expected to make avotive offering, which sometimes took the form of a replica of the afflicted organ or limb. A patient is shown dedicating a large votive leg to the god in thanks for curing his varicose veins. In these Asklepia, special rites were observed. After purification baths, fasting, and sacrifices, the patient would spend the night in the god’s temple, a process called enkoimesis, incubatio (“sleeping in”). During the night Asclepius would appear to the sleeping patient in a dream and give him advice. In the morning priests would interpret the dream and explain the god’s precepts. Patients thanked Asclepius by tossing gold into the sacred fountain and by hanging ex-votos on the walls of the temple.
Silver tetradrachm, Epidauros, 350-330 BCE.
This coin was minted at Epidauros, the site of the great healing sanctuary of Asclepius. The god became a symbol of the city. He is shown on the reverse of the coin accompanied by a serpent. The letter E to the right of the figure is short for Epidauros.
The Healing of Archinus, ex-voto tablet, Athens, National Museum, c. 370 BCE
This famous dedication was made by Archinus at the healing shrine of Amphiaraus at Oropus, on the borders of Boeotia and Attica. The cult at Oropus was one of incubation, and on the right, we see the patient asleep on a couch. In the left foreground, Amphiaraus, like a human doctor, is treating the patient’s right shoulder: this scene represents the supposed content of Archinus’s dream. But, in the same scene, a sacred snake, a healing animal, is shown licking or biting the same right shoulder of the sleeping patient: this is the cure as it would supposedly have appeared to a waking observer. Behind, on a pillar, a votive stele commemorates the god’s act of healing. The figure on the right might perhaps be yet a third representation of Archinus, in this case, gratefully dedicating his stele. There are hundreds of extant inscriptions and votive reliefs recounting the individual cures of patients at the Asklepia. The following examples were found at the ruins of the Asklepion in Epidauros:
- Ambrosia, a woman of Athens, was blind in one eye. After laughing at some of the cures by which the lame and the blind were healed, while dreaming, she sees Asclepius standing beside her. He tells her that he will cure her if she promises afterwards to dedicate a silver pig as a memorial of her ignorance. Then he cut the diseased eyeball and poured in a drug. When day came, she walked out sound.
- Agestratus was cured of headaches so severe he was unable to sleep.
- Gorgias, having a suppurating wound made by an arrow that had pierced his chest, slept beside an altar and awakened with a sound skin, holding the arrow point in his hand.
- Euhippus had had a spear point fixed in his jaw for six years. As he was sleeping in the temple Asclepius pulled out the spearhead. When day came Euhippus departed cured and holding the spearhead in his hands.
Votive terra cotta offerings from Cerveteri, Etruria, now in Museo Gregoriano Etrusco, 3rd century. Foot.
Votive terra cotta offerings from Cerveteri, Etruria, now in Museo Gregoriano Etrusco, 3rd century. Hand.
Votive terra cotta offerings from Cerveteri, Etruria, now in Museo Gregoriano Etrusco, 3rd century. Digestive organs.
The hand (left) and foot (right) in this collection of votive terra cottas are both painted red. Therefore, they represent the limbs of a male; in ancient Mediterranean art, the flesh of men was painted red and the flesh of women, white or pink. The sculpture was made in a mold that had been reused a number of times; consequently, sculptured details like the fingernails are only faintly visible. The esophagus, stomach, intestine, and kidneys are visible in this curious representation of the digestive organs. It was offered as a gift to a divinity either in gratitude or as a plea for healing. The cult of Asclepius also existed in Rome after 291 BCE. No trace of the sanctuary of Asclepius in Rome exists, but the cult was immensely popular as evidenced by the number of terra cottas. These offerings depicted parts of the human body, often at greater than life size, and were dedicated by the afflicted at healing sanctuaries. More than 100 sanctuaries in Italy are known, the majority in western-central Italy, and it is clear that the inspiration for these temples stemmed ultimately from the temple in Rome itself. Other cult centers sprang up across Italy. Study of the terra cottas from these precincts reveals the emergence of some specialized centers in healing. At Ponte di Nona, e.g., a rural complex some 15 kilometers to the east of Rome, the collections are dominated by feet and hands– precisely the parts of the body which are likely to suffer damage in the course of agricultural work. In the town of Veii, on the other hand, the terra cottas from the Campetti sanctuary contain a huge proportion of male and female sexual organs. If not associated with some form of fertility cult, these may well hint at a high incidence of sexually transmitted diseases, of a sort that might well be picked up in an urban brothel.
Surgical Instruments, Greek Art, and the Medical Caduceus
The “knotty tree limb” symbol appears frequently on surgical instruments, as well as being linked to representations of Asclepius and, in particular, Hercules. It can also be found on the handles ofapotropaic instruments, which ward off evil forces. Some scholars claim that the motif is limited to instruments particularly liable to cause pain. Given the widespread worship of Hercules in the Roman world, this motif was probably adopted by Greek physicians to please their Roman clients.
Red figure, Attic Cup, c. 490 BCE
Illustrations of physicians at work are rare in Greek art. This scene, on the inside of a dish dating about 490 BCE, depicts Achilles binding a wound on Patroklos’s arm. It exemplifies the prevalent formality in patient treatment at that time: a prescribed kneeling position for particular tasks and an overall calmness of manner. Achilles was trained in medicine by Chiron, the centaur-sage. Although he was invincible in battle, Achilles is shown here as an inept medic. He is attempting to make a crisscross tourniquet, which should be at once comfortable and capable of staunching the wound. To judge from Patroklos’s wince, the tourniquet is painful and inexpertly applied because the two ends will not meet. His work will have to be unraveled and redone.
The Origins of the Medical Caduceus
Detail, Pompeiian wall painting, 1st century BCE
Snakes are familiar symbols of healing because of their presence on the medical caduceus, the symbol of the herald’s wand used by Hermes. The medical caduceus originated during WWII, when medics used it as a symbol for a truce. Its association with medicine goes back even further, to ancient Greece, where the snake entwined upon a walking staff was one of the accoutrements of the healer-god Asclepius.
The Asclepian staff has often been confused with the caduceus. Both were probably symbols of truce in wartime, but the Asclepian staff entwined by only one snake is regarded by Classicists as the true symbol of the medical profession.
Roman Marble Statue, 1st Century CE
The snake has been a symbol of healing since prehistoric times. It was associated with regeneration, due to the easily observable phenomena of it shedding its skin. Because they were used in the healing rites at his temples, the god Asclepius (at right) often appears accompanied by one or more serpents. Snakes were also used in Italy as part of the private family worship. Each household contained a shrine, or lararium, where offerings to the familial ancestors were placed.
Detail, Pompeiian wall painting, 1st Century BCE
These ancestors, or Lares, were thought to assume the form of snakes, and they were credited for the family’s health and prosperity. The detail shown here is from alararium uncovered in Pompeii. The god Bacchus is shown, morphed into a cluster of grapes.
(TO BE CONTINUED)