Internet of Things (IoT): A vision, architectural elements, and future directions (1)

h i g h l i g h t s
• Presents vision and motivations for Internet of Things (IoT).
• Application domains in the IoT with a new approach in defining them.
• Cloud-centric IoT realization and challenges.
• Open challenges and future trends in Cloud Centric Internet of Things.

a b s t r a c t
Ubiquitous sensing enabled by Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technologies cuts across many areas of   modern day living. This offers the ability to measure, infer and understand environmental indicators, from  delicate ecologies and natural resources to urban environments. The proliferation of these devices in a  communicating–actuating network creates the Internet of Things (IoT), wherein sensors and actuators  blend seamlessly with the environment around us, and the information is shared across platforms in order
to develop a common operating picture (COP). Fueled by the recent adaptation of a variety of enabling  wireless technologies such as RFID tags and embedded sensor and actuator nodes, the IoT has stepped out  of its infancy and is the next revolutionary technology in transforming the Internet into a fully integrated  Future Internet. As we move from www (static pages web) to web2 (social networking web) to web3  (ubiquitous computing web), the need for data-on-demand using sophisticated intuitive queries increases  significantly. This paper presents a Cloud centric vision for worldwide implementation of Internet of
Things. The key enabling technologies and application domains that are likely to drive IoT research in the  near future are discussed. A Cloud implementation using Aneka, which is based on interaction of private  and public Clouds is presented. We conclude our IoT vision by expanding on the need for convergence of  WSN, the Internet and distributed computing directed at technological research community.
© 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction
The next wave in the era of computing will be outside the realm  of the traditional desktop. In the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm,many of the objects that surround us will be on the network in one  form or another. Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) and sensor
network technologies will rise to meet this new challenge, in which  information and communication systems are invisibly embedded  in the environment around us. This results in the generation of  enormous amounts of data which have to be stored, processed
and presented in a seamless, efficient, and easily interpretable form. This model will consist of services that are commodities and  delivered in a manner similar to traditional commodities. Cloud  computing can provide the virtual infrastructure for such utility
computing which integrates monitoring devices, storage devices,analytics tools, visualization platforms and client delivery. The cost  based model that Cloud computing offers will enable end-to-end  service provisioning for businesses and users to access applications  on demand from anywhere.
Smart connectivity with existing networks and context-aware  computation using network resources is an indispensable part of  IoT. With the growing presence of WiFi and 4G-LTE wireless Internet  access, the evolution towards ubiquitous information and communication
networks is already evident. However, for the Internet  of Things vision to successfully emerge, the computing paradigm  will need to go beyond traditional mobile computing scenarios  that use smart phones and portables, and evolve into connecting  everyday existing objects and embedding intelligence into our  environment. For technology to disappear from the consciousness  of the user, the Internet of Things demands: (1) a shared  understanding of the situation of its users and their appliances,(2) software architectures and pervasive communication networks  to process and convey the contextual information to where it is relevant,and (3) the analytics tools in the Internet of Things that aim  for autonomous and smart behavior. With these three fundamental
grounds in place, smart connectivity and context-aware computation  can be accomplished.
The term Internet of Things was first coined by Kevin Ashton  in 1999 in the context of supply chain management [1]. However,in the past decade, the definition has been more inclusive covering  wide range of applications like healthcare, utilities, transport,
etc. [2]. Although the definition of ‘Things’ has changed as technology  evolved, the main goal of making a computer sense information  without the aid of human intervention remains the same.
A radical evolution of the current Internet into a Network of interconnected  objects that not only harvests information from the  environment (sensing) and interacts with the physical world (actuation/command/control), but also uses existing Internet standards
to provide services for information transfer, analytics, applications,and communications. Fueled by the prevalence of devices enabled  by open wireless technology such as Bluetooth, radio frequency  identification (RFID), Wi-Fi, and telephonic data services as well as  embedded sensor and actuator nodes, IoT has stepped out of its infancy
and is on the verge of transforming the current static Internet  into a fully integrated Future Internet [3]. The Internet revolution  led to the interconnection between people at an unprecedented  scale and pace. The next revolution will be the interconnection between
objects to create a smart environment. Only in 2011 did the  number of interconnected devices on the planet overtake the actual  number of people. Currently there are 9 billion interconnected  devices and it is expected to reach 24 billion devices by 2020.
According to the GSMA, this amounts to $1.3 trillion revenue opportunities  for mobile network operators alone spanning vertical  segments such as health, automotive, utilities and consumer electronics.
A schematic of the interconnection of objects is depicted in  Fig. 1, where the application domains are chosen based on the scale of the impact of the data generated. The users span from individual  to national level organizations addressing wide ranging issues.
This paper presents the current trends in IoT research  propelled by applications and the need for convergence in several  interdisciplinary technologies. Specifically, in Section 2,wepresent  the overall IoT vision and the technologies that will achieve it  followed by some common definitions in the area along with  some trends and taxonomy of IoT in Section 3. We discuss several  application domains in IoT with a new approach in defining them  in Section 4 and Section 5 provides our Cloud centric IoT vision.
A case study of data analytics on the Aneka/Azure cloud platform  is given in Section 6 and we conclude with discussions on open  challenges and future trends in Section 7.


Jayavardhana Gubbia, Rajkumar Buyyab,∗, Slaven Marusic a, Marimuthu Palaniswami a
a Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Vic – 3010, Australia
b Department of Computing and Information Systems, The University of Melbourne, Vic – 3010, Australia

Article history:
Received 8 July 2012
Received in revised form
22 December 2012
Accepted 30 January 2013
Available online 24 February 2013


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