h i g h l i g h t s
• Presents vision and motivations for Internet of Things (IoT).
• Application domains in the IoT with a new approach in defining them.
• Cloud-centric IoT realization and challenges.
• Open challenges and future trends in Cloud Centric Internet of Things.
a b s t r a c t
Ubiquitous sensing enabled by Wireless Sensor Network (WSN) technologies cuts across many areas of modern day living. This offers the ability to measure, infer and understand environmental indicators, from delicate ecologies and natural resources to urban environments. The proliferation of these devices in a communicating–actuating network creates the Internet of Things (IoT), wherein sensors and actuators blend seamlessly with the environment around us, and the information is shared across platforms in order
to develop a common operating picture (COP). Fueled by the recent adaptation of a variety of enabling wireless technologies such as RFID tags and embedded sensor and actuator nodes, the IoT has stepped out of its infancy and is the next revolutionary technology in transforming the Internet into a fully integrated Future Internet. As we move from www (static pages web) to web2 (social networking web) to web3 (ubiquitous computing web), the need for data-on-demand using sophisticated intuitive queries increases significantly. This paper presents a Cloud centric vision for worldwide implementation of Internet of
Things. The key enabling technologies and application domains that are likely to drive IoT research in the near future are discussed. A Cloud implementation using Aneka, which is based on interaction of private and public Clouds is presented. We conclude our IoT vision by expanding on the need for convergence of WSN, the Internet and distributed computing directed at technological research community.
© 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
The next wave in the era of computing will be outside the realm of the traditional desktop. In the Internet of Things (IoT) paradigm,many of the objects that surround us will be on the network in one form or another. Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) and sensor
network technologies will rise to meet this new challenge, in which information and communication systems are invisibly embedded in the environment around us. This results in the generation of enormous amounts of data which have to be stored, processed
and presented in a seamless, efficient, and easily interpretable form. This model will consist of services that are commodities and delivered in a manner similar to traditional commodities. Cloud computing can provide the virtual infrastructure for such utility
computing which integrates monitoring devices, storage devices,analytics tools, visualization platforms and client delivery. The cost based model that Cloud computing offers will enable end-to-end service provisioning for businesses and users to access applications on demand from anywhere.
Smart connectivity with existing networks and context-aware computation using network resources is an indispensable part of IoT. With the growing presence of WiFi and 4G-LTE wireless Internet access, the evolution towards ubiquitous information and communication
networks is already evident. However, for the Internet of Things vision to successfully emerge, the computing paradigm will need to go beyond traditional mobile computing scenarios that use smart phones and portables, and evolve into connecting everyday existing objects and embedding intelligence into our environment. For technology to disappear from the consciousness of the user, the Internet of Things demands: (1) a shared understanding of the situation of its users and their appliances,(2) software architectures and pervasive communication networks to process and convey the contextual information to where it is relevant,and (3) the analytics tools in the Internet of Things that aim for autonomous and smart behavior. With these three fundamental
grounds in place, smart connectivity and context-aware computation can be accomplished.
The term Internet of Things was first coined by Kevin Ashton in 1999 in the context of supply chain management . However,in the past decade, the definition has been more inclusive covering wide range of applications like healthcare, utilities, transport,
etc. . Although the definition of ‘Things’ has changed as technology evolved, the main goal of making a computer sense information without the aid of human intervention remains the same.
A radical evolution of the current Internet into a Network of interconnected objects that not only harvests information from the environment (sensing) and interacts with the physical world (actuation/command/control), but also uses existing Internet standards
to provide services for information transfer, analytics, applications,and communications. Fueled by the prevalence of devices enabled by open wireless technology such as Bluetooth, radio frequency identification (RFID), Wi-Fi, and telephonic data services as well as embedded sensor and actuator nodes, IoT has stepped out of its infancy
and is on the verge of transforming the current static Internet into a fully integrated Future Internet . The Internet revolution led to the interconnection between people at an unprecedented scale and pace. The next revolution will be the interconnection between
objects to create a smart environment. Only in 2011 did the number of interconnected devices on the planet overtake the actual number of people. Currently there are 9 billion interconnected devices and it is expected to reach 24 billion devices by 2020.
According to the GSMA, this amounts to $1.3 trillion revenue opportunities for mobile network operators alone spanning vertical segments such as health, automotive, utilities and consumer electronics.
A schematic of the interconnection of objects is depicted in Fig. 1, where the application domains are chosen based on the scale of the impact of the data generated. The users span from individual to national level organizations addressing wide ranging issues.
This paper presents the current trends in IoT research propelled by applications and the need for convergence in several interdisciplinary technologies. Specifically, in Section 2,wepresent the overall IoT vision and the technologies that will achieve it followed by some common definitions in the area along with some trends and taxonomy of IoT in Section 3. We discuss several application domains in IoT with a new approach in defining them in Section 4 and Section 5 provides our Cloud centric IoT vision.
A case study of data analytics on the Aneka/Azure cloud platform is given in Section 6 and we conclude with discussions on open challenges and future trends in Section 7.
(TO BE CONTINUED)
Jayavardhana Gubbia, Rajkumar Buyyab,∗, Slaven Marusic a, Marimuthu Palaniswami a
a Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Vic – 3010, Australia
b Department of Computing and Information Systems, The University of Melbourne, Vic – 3010, Australia
Received 8 July 2012
Received in revised form
22 December 2012
Accepted 30 January 2013
Available online 24 February 2013