SPACE DEBRIS AROUND G®AIA (B)


(BEING CONTINUED FROM 16/01/14)

C)Space Debris Elimination (SpaDE)

Daniel Gregory
Raytheon BBN Technologies

NIAC Fellowships icon

› Phase I Final Report (PDF)
The amount of debris in low Earth orbit (LEO) has increased rapidly over the last twenty years. This prevalence of debris increases the likelihood of cascading collisions that cause the debris generation rate to outstrip the rate at which debris deorbits, falling into the atmosphere and burning up. This accumulation creates debris belts that render many orbits unusable. Current strategies emphasize debris mitigation, as there is no practical method for debris removal. Raytheon BBN Technologies (BBN) and the University of Michigan will study the Space Debris Elimination (SpaDE) system to remove debris from orbit by firing focused pulses of atmospheric gases into the path of targeted debris. These pulses will increase drag sufficiently to cause the deorbit rate to exceed the debris generation rate. The pulses themselves will fall back into the atmosphere, leaving no residual trace in orbit to interfere with LEO satellites. In contrast to other proposed methods, SpaDE is failsafe, in that it places no solid material in orbit where a malfunction could create new debris.
This project will conduct technology risk reduction analyses and modeling. The research will produce an academic paper and presentation describing the technical results and providing the foundation for future work, to include prototyping, field experiments and ultimately deployment of a SpaDE system.

SOURCE  http://www.nasa.gov/

D)SPACE DEBRIS AND PRESENT ACTIVE DEBRIS  REMOVAL TECHNIQUES

OUTLINE
INTRODUCTION TO SPACE DEBRIS
ACTIVE DEBRIS REMOVAL CONCEPT
ACTIVE DEBRIS REMOVAL TECHNIQUES
CHALLENGES IN INSTITUTING EFFECTIVE SPACE DEBRIS REMOVAL

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The source of space debris could be expired satellites, spent rocket upper stages, fragments from explosions and collisions, paint flakes, chunks of slag from solid rocket motors, remnants of old science experiments and a variety of small particles.

Three categories of space debris, depending on their size:
Category I (<1cm)
make significant damage to vulnerable parts of a satellite, shielding
Category II (1-10 cm)
seriously damage or destroy a satellite in a collision, no effective shielding
Category III (>10cm)
destroy a satellite in a collision, can be tracked(in GEO >1m), evasive maneuvers

Space Surveillance Network (SSN)

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Estimated amount of orbital debris, by size
The table is based on data from European Space Agency MASTER 2005 debris environment, plus estimation of debris from the breakup events from 2006 to 2008.

A)currently more than 15,000 objects are tracked and kept in a catalog by SSN

B)space debris number is much more than catalog

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Laser

Ground- and air-based laser

provide a very high power

technology is mature

energy lose significantly by the atmospheric absorption

could not be move freely in a huge range

Space-based laser

no negative atmospheric effects

be able to track and target debris with a much larger field of view

focus on targets for longer periods of time

the cost is much larger to build, lunch and operate

can be a space-based weapon system

A US project named ORION is aimed on the effectiveness of using ground-based laser to clear up the space debris in LEO. For most LEO debris, the change of its velocity can be completed in a single transit of the debris.

In 2000 the US invested $ 200 million to research the ground-based laser experiment to clean up debris, and intended to have the experiment in 2003. 13

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Capture vehicle and ROGER project
The Robotic Geostationary Orbit Restorer, ROGER project which started in 2002 by European Space Agency (ESA), is a new concept for an in-orbit roving debris removal system. ROGER can be tasked to approach and capture a redundant or non-operational satellite in the Geostationary (GEO) orbit and tow it into a parking or graveyard orbit(GYO).
Different configurations of the ROGER spacecraft have been identified. These differ not only in the basic satellite bus but mainly in the means used to “capture” a target satellite.

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Capture vehicle and ROGER project

The technical challenges
1.the ability to safely capture a target
2.the number of target satellites within a multiple target mission is limited
3.control both the ROGER satellite and the tandem “ROGER plus target satellite”
4.capability of dextrous robotics
5.the supervision, control and eventually tele-manipulation of ROGER from ground

CHALLENGES IN INSTITUTING EFFECTIVE SPACE DEBRIS REMOVAL
•ADR technology require substantial time and money to develop and deploy (It costs around $10,000 per kilogram to lunch anything into orbit)
•a lack of clear policy on international level
•the similarities between space debris removal systems and space weapons
•starting the process of active debris removal

ZHANG ZE (张泽)
SCHOOL OF ASTRONAUTICS, BEIHANG UNIVERSITY

SOURCE  2011 Beijing Space Sustainability Conference October 13-14, 2011,Beijing

(TO BE CONTINUED)

About sooteris kyritsis

Job title: (f)PHELLOW OF SOPHIA Profession: RESEARCHER Company: ANTHROOPISMOS Favorite quote: "ITS TIME FOR KOSMOPOLITANS(=HELLINES) TO FLY IN SPACE." Interested in: Activity Partners, Friends Fashion: Classic Humor: Friendly Places lived: EN THE HIGHLANDS OF KOSMOS THROUGH THE DARKNESS OF AMENTHE
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