ECCLESIA–EGLISE– , Κ-ΥΡΙΑΚΟΝ/CH-UR(IA)CH/ц-ер(IA)ковь (1)


GREGORIAN CHANT

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INTRODUCTION

Bien chère Madame J. Ward,
Vous me demandez de presenter au  public américain votre premier livre sur  le Chant  Grégorien,« Gregorian Chant»— le quatrième de votre série rnusicale—destine aux enfants fréquentant les  Ecoîes Catholiques. J’accepte avec  d’autant plus de joie, que c’est pour moi  l’occasion de témoigner ouvertement et  la haute estime que je professe pour  votre enseignement et, en même temps,la reconnaissance profonde que je vous
dois. Je m’expìique.
Votre « Gregorian Chant», en effet,reflète dans une réalité lumíneuse les  plus exactes doctrines de Solesmes :
comment pourrait-il en être autrement?
Votre zèle, déjà ancien pour la cause  grégorienne, excite par les succès récents
du Congrès de New-York (1920), vous a conduit a Quarr Abbey, le Solesmes
de l’exil, en 1’lle de Wight. Là, pendant  de longs mois — Mai 1921-Janvier 1922,
— vous* avez suivi avec assiduité les offices liturgiques, vous avez écouté avec
attention et piété le choeur des moines  chantant la louange divine, et, peu à^peu,
la beauté, la suavité des melodies grégoriennes ont captive votre âme de chrétienne
et d’artiste. Quelle leçon, quelle  initiation déjà!
Ce n’est pas tout. Comprendre et goûter îe charme des saintes cantilènes,
ne vous a pas suffi. Vous avez voulu  savoir comment les moines arrivaient à  cette douceur, à ce legato, à ce phrase, à  ce « grand rythme » large, ondulant, qui  caractérisent l’exécution solesmienne.
A Quarr Abbey, on s’est prêté volontiers  à vos désirs, et Solesmes vous a  donñé sur ce point tout ce qu’il pouvait  vous donner; tous les secrets du nombre  musical grégorien, toutes les lois qui  president à l’expression plastique ou  Chironomie des circuits  ythmiques vous  ont été révélés. L’accueil réfléchi, cordial,artistique de nos doctrines a produit  dans votre esprit et dans le mien un  résultat auquel j’étais loin de m’attendre:
Nous nous sommes rendus un mutuel  service!
Et c’est ici, Madame, que je dois vous  féliciter, mieux encore, me féliciter moimême
d’avoir une telle élève, et vous  remercier. Voyez plutôt.
Cette doctrine, mienne, que je vous  ai communiquée en des termes parfois  bien arides, bien scientifiques et peutêtre  même un peu obscurs, vous l’avez  transformée d’une manière merveilleuse.
Toujours préoccupée de vos milliers  d’enfants américains que vous aimez  comme une mere, vous n’avez songé, en  la recevant, qu’à l·acccommoder à la  capacité intellectuelle de ces petits. Et,de fait, vous vous l’êtes tellement assimilée,approprîée, vous l’avez tellement
travaillée dans le laboratoire de votre  pensée, que, sous votre plume, elle  reparaît, — car c’est elle, — mais renouvelée,aimable, claire, simple, enfantine,adaptée avec une adresse delicate, une  grace charmante, j’allais dire maternelle,aux aptitudes des plus jeunes enfants.
Les moyens les plus ingénieux, voiles  légers dont les plis flottants représentent
la souplesse des mouvements rythmiques, tout vous est bon pour graver  dans leur imagination les lignes mélodiques  et rythmiques les plus gracieuses  de nos douces melodies.
N’est-ce pas aussi une heureuse trouvaille  que vos recreations ou jeux rythmiques,
« chironomic games », qui forcent  l’enfant à créer, sur une chironomie  dessinée devant lui, une petite mélodie  conforme aux gestes proposes?
Je vous dois, Madame, toute ma  pensée : votre « Gregorian Chant »m’éclaire sur la valeur de notre Chironomie; et voici comment.
Au point de vue pédagogique, vous  avez su tirer de la figuration rythmique  un parti inattendu. Jusqu’ici cette  science de la direction manuelle était  pour moi comme le sommet, le couronnement  de Tenseignement rythmique, la  part réservée presque exclusivement aux  maîtres de choeur; vous, Madame, vous  la mettez à la base de tout votre enseignement,vous en faites un element d’instruction  de tout premier ordre, et vous
avez cent fois raison. Je ne vous le  cacherai pas : vos premiers essais dans  cette voie soulevèrent d£bord en moi  un secret scepticisme; bien vite j’ai dû  changer d’avis. La science des beaux  mouvements corporels, — evolutions  des mains, des pieds, du corps entier —la marche, j’allais dire la danse religieuse  grégorienne, est devenue pour  vous le moyen principal d’imprimer dans  Tame de vos jeunes disciples, les rythmes  souples et flottants de nos melodies  depuis les plus simples jusqu’aux plus  compliquées. Idee vraiment géniale,qui permet aux plus hubles de s’en  pénétrer, comme en se jouant, d’arriver  rapidement à la connaissance complete   du nombre musical grégorien, et à sa
pratique intelligente et parfaite, idee  qui realise et met en scene la definition  platonique du rythme : « Pordonnance  du mouvement», ou encore celle de  St Augustin : « le rythme est la science  des beaux mouvements ». Et remarquons-le bien, du coup se trouvent places  à leurs rangs secondaires tous les autres  phénomènes qui entrent dans la composition  d’une mélodie : acuité, intensité,durée, etc. N’ai-je pas raison de vous
remercier?
II me faudrait encore signaler dans  votre « Gregorian Chant » Pordre ingénieux
des matières et la discretion de  votre Méthode si bien appropriée à  Pintelligence enfantine. Tout se passe  comme en famille, dans une conversation  agréable et recreative entre mere et  enfants : les notions musicales, et rythmiques,théoriques et pratiques les plus  variées sont distillées, goutte à goutte,comme par bqpquées, à ces chers petits
et petites qui les recoivent sans effort;ils apprennent ainsi, en se recreant, tout
ce qui leur est nécessaire pour chanter  joyeusement, comme de petits oiseaux,
les louanges dues à leur Créateur et à  leur Rédempteur.
Voilà pour la formation musicale!Vous êtes artiste, mais plus encore chrétienne,
vous avez bien garde d’oublier  le but dernier de la cantilène grégorienne: élever les âmes, éclairer les  intelligences.
Vous n’épargnez rien pour atteindre  ce but. A 1’aide de l’Ecriture Sainte et  de la Tradition vous expliquez soigneusement  a vos « pupils » les textes liturgiques  qu’ils doivent chanter. C’est  ainsi que l’antienne Asperges me vous  donne l’occasion d’exposer le  symbole  de Teau dans Tancien et dans le nouveau  Testament; avec le Sanctus vous les
introduisez dans le ciel, et les faites  assister aux scenes sublimes décrites  dans TApocalypse; à propos de XAgnus  Dei vous leur apprenez les figures prophétiques
du divin Agneau. Ainsi  pour le reste.
Et, pour bien faire pénétrer ces doctrines,ces splendeurs dans leurs intelligences,
vous avez recours au procédé de  l’image. Et queues images! Des miniatures  merveilleuses qui répètènt et  animent vos explications scripturaires  et doctrinales. Pourquoi ne dirais-je
pas qu’elles sont dues au talent délicat,à la piété éclairée des Benedictines de  Sainte Cécile.
Ainsi rien ne manque plus à la formation  de vos chers enfants. S’ils veulent  être attentifs et mettre en pratique vos  enseignements, ils seront prêts à unir  leurs voix enfantines aux concerts  des Anges.
En terminant, permettez-moi, bien  chère Madame, de souhaiter a vos livres  sur le «Gregorian Chant » ìes mêmes  brillants §uccès qu’à vos livres sur la  Musique. Dans l’une et l’autre série  mêmes principes, qui sont ceux du Très  Reverend Docteur Thomas Edward  Shields. Dans Tune et l’autre même  méthode, même simplicité, même sollicitude
maternelle pour Fenfance; aussi,j’en suis convaincu, maîtres, rnaîtresses  et élèves de toutes les Ecoies catholiques  des Etats-Unis accueilleront avec  empressement cette nouvelle ceuvre, en  attendant que, peu à peu, elle se répande  en Europe. Ce voeu est loin d’etre  chimérique : des indices certains de cette  diffusion se montrent déjà çà et là;
bientôt nous en verrons la realisation.
Je suis heureux de signer cette lettre  en la joyeuse fete de Noel, et de placer  ainsi, si vous me le permettez, votre  livre écrit pour des enfants, sous la  protection du divin Enfant et de la  Vierge Mere.
Veuillez agréer, bien chère Madame,avec toute ma reconnaissance, Texpression
de mes sentiments les plus respectueux  et les plus dévoués.

F. ANDRE MOCQUEREAU.

On the Feast of the Nativity of Our Lord, 1921.
Abbaye de S. Pierre de Solesmes
Quarr Abbey Ryde
Isle of Wight

MUSIC FOURTH YEAR
PREFACE
In the earlier volumes of this series, we have sought to lay a solid foundation  in tone, pitch and musical appreciation upon which might rest solidly the great  art which we now approach directly, the art which is to enrich the child’s  devotional life by an understanding of, and participation in, the liturgical prayer  of the Church. The music which is the subject of the present book is that  in which the Church has embodied her message from the earliest days of the  Christian era, which she has safeguarded through the centuries as her official  form of musical expression, and through whose strains today, linked to the words
of her liturgy, she teaches and prays, meditates, mourns and jubilates.
That this music has a natural place in the curriculum of our Catholic schools  is becoming increasingly evident in our day when the discoveries of modern  science are leading us into a fuller appreciation of those methods which the  Church has consistently used in the transmission of her message.* Since  appropriate feeling is necessary to assimilation, it must be as necessary to the  assimilation of religious truth as it is to other branches. Thus we understand  the importance which the Church has always attached to an appropriate musical  expression of her dogma; we understand her insistance upon music of a specific
kind, which will not merely stimulate the feelings in a general way, but will  embody her dogma in an appropriate form of expression. If a further reason  were needed for the inclusion of this subject in the curriculum, we have it in the  urgent plea of the highest authority in Christendom.
The function of Church music, according to Pope Pius X, is summed up in the  words “vivificare·et fecundare”. There are two ways in which we may expect  music to add life and efficacy to the text; the one is by an enrichment of the doctrinal content through symbolic use of themes; the other, by supplying that  power, that energizing force, which feeling adds to a merely intellectual concept. x
To these two functions we might add a third which is to cultivate an ability to
distinguish between different types of emotional appeal, and respond only to the
highest. All these are essential elements to be considered in the educational
function of music.
In all three respects the chant of the Church stands supreme. It enriches the  doctrinal content by lifting into consciousness, in a new significance, certain  associated ideas by means of a series of sound pictures taken from mystically  related offices. We have an example of this type of enrichment in the Mass for  the Dead. Here the music is a living tissue of related sound pictures which add  to the content of the printed or spoken word, bringing a message of consolation  and of hope to the ear attuned to receive it. As we sing the Tract and ask that  the soul of the deceased may be forgiven his sins and helped by divine grace to  reach eternal joy, the melody lifts into conciousness the scenes which ushered in  the dawn of Our Lord’s resurrection — the Chosen Vine, the power of the Word
of God, the hart panting for the fountains of waters, and finally the shout 01triumph of Holy Saturday, ” Laudate Dominum omnes gentes”. But should  the mind fail to catch these symbolic applications, it can hardly fail to realize the  mystical intent whereby the melody of the Gradual Requiem aeternam is almost  an exact replica of the triumphant Gradual of Easter. Here our appeal that the  soul may reach eternal light is expressed jn the same strains which, at Easter,announced the Day which the Lord had made for exultation and joy; we assure  ourselves that the soul of the just is held in eternal remembrance and cannot be  touched by the powers of evil in the same strains which, at Easter, expressed our  confidence in God’s goodness and His everlasting mercy. This close linking  together in melodic identity of death with Resurrection, and with that one  supreme victory over death which is the hope of the individual soul, is more  realistic and more convincing in music than it could be through any mere verbal  connection, and as a matter of fact the words attempt no such exact parallel.
The implication is there, but the music makes it explicit. Indeed the music  goes a step further in its suggestive power, and reminds us of the Guardian  Angel whose loving care is untouched by death; it weaves in a mystical reference  to the eternal marriage feast of the Lamb to raise the hearts of those who know the Gradual of the Mass pro Sponso et Sponsa. Thus does the · music enrich the  doctrinal content by what might b e called a symbolic code of cross references.
Through her music, moreover, the Church supplies us with a key to the  different degrees and qualities of feeling which distinguish one season from  another, one feast from another. It teaches us not only when, but how, she  mourns; not only when, but how, she jubilates. Much of this is conveyed by the  music alone. For example, the single word u Alleluia” recurs constantly  throughout the liturgical year. In the printed or spoken word there is no
change from season to season. The music alone supplies the commontary on  the text, and conveys the difference of quality between the joy of one season and another, of one feast and another. Here we find the rainbow shades of the  Church’s moods, translated into music — clothed with infinite variety. From  the tentative and humble tones of the Alleluia of Holy Saturday when the soul  can hardly believe in its own salvation, when the price of the sacrifice is yet too  close at hand to forget the pain which won our triumph — through the gradual  crescendo of joy and exultation to the Ascension; through the mystical renewal
of Pentecost; and the innocent— almost naive — rejoicings of Christmas; —all these shades of feeling are contained in the music, which gives its true  character to the unchanging word, vivifying the letter, which killeth, by adding  the spirit, which giveth life.
All this is educative in the highest sense, and if music is the education oF  feeling, this particular music is, and must remain, par excellence, the education  of Catholic feeling. Through its aid the children in our schools will learn to  recognize the distinction between Christian and pagan feeling. Music will  become for them, not a series of more or less pretty sounds to delight in, but an  intellectual and symbolic code, — raising their minds and hearts to the standard  of the Church’s thought and the standard of her feeling. If it is the function of the  Catholic school to form their minds through sound doctrine, it must be no less  its function to form their hearts through sound feeling, that there may be no  contradiction between truth and its expression. Failing this, the heart,— seeking beauty, — may perchance find .satisfaction elsewhere, and dogma,— become inarticulate, — may sicken and die.
This explains the psychological basis of the Church’s insistence on a   particular form of music. She did not leave to chance this formation of the emotions, but, taking the arts to herself, she shaped them to her own purpose. 3
This explains the words of Pope Pius X when he set before us Gregorian Chant  as the”type or norm ” of Christian musical prayer, and its function to ” raise  and form the heart of the faithful to all sanctity “. There is, then, a classical  standard or type of Christian expression as there is a classical standard or type  of Christian life. As the Saints and Martyrs are placed before us as models for  our imitative faculties in the realm of Christian life and action, so in Gregorian  Chant we are given models for our imitative faculties in the realm of Christian  feeling, by which to orientate our emotion.

In Music Fourth Year, we give the children in germinal form the basic  principles of this great and subtle art. Our purpose is, not merely to teach them  to sing one or two Masses correctly, or even beautifully, but rather, while  studying these Masses, to lay a foundation which will open to them, ultimately, the whole musical drama of the liturgical year. From this basis the books which  are to follow will unfold: one series dealing with the history and literature of  secular music, the other dealing with the liturgical music of the Church. Both
series have their roots in the liturgical chant. The present book lays the basis  for congregational singing of those parts of the Mass which the Church has allotted to ” the people”, namely, the responses, the Kyrie, Gloria, Credo,Sanctus and Agnus Dei. Subsequent volumes of the liturgical series will deal  with the Proper of the Mass, with that portion for which the Church assumes a  selected body of singers rather than the whole congregation of the faithful.
The secular series is also a direct outgrowth of this study. The time has  passed when music may be studied as though it had first seen the light of day in  the fifteenth century and had developed from that date to the present: Such a  presentation ignores, not only the music of classical times — of which but little  remains to us, — but further ignores more than a thousand years of medieval music of which we possess a vast and significant literature which represents to  the student of music what the Gothic Cathedral represents to the student of  architecture — namely the efflorescence of the Christian spirit in terms of his  particular art, before the Renaissance substituted naturalistic expression for  symbolic expression and thereby brought about the divorce of art from religion.
But in spite of this separation we still find the roots of these modern secular arts  thrust deep into the heart of the liturgy. From the liturgy sprang the mystery  plays, the moralities, and from them the modern secular drama, oratorio and  opera. From the ancient ecclesiastical modes, in their rich variety and subtlely,
were deduced the two modern scales as a compromise to serve the needs of  modern harmony. From the free and soaring flight of Gregorian rhythm was  deduced the system of measure divisions as a convenience to serve the needs of  polyphonic singers. And now we find modern composers tracing back to  Gregorian sources the models for the various musical forms of modern music.
Vincent d’Indy in a recent article 4 traces back to Gregorian sources such forms  as the independent balanced phrase, the song-form, the suite, the rondo and the  variation. “I maintain,” he writes, “that Gregorian Chant not only has had a  strong influence upon modern musical art but nas directly given it birth, since  all the forms — symphonic and dramatic — which have succeeded each other in  the course of the centuries, and whose authorship have been attributed to this  composer or that, existed already in a clearly defined and characteristic manner in the more beautiful of the Gregorian melodies, which melodies indeed for a  thousand years were the sum total of all music.”

Thus purely from the viewpoint of the modern musician we require the  background of the Chant — its tonalities, rhythm and form, for in music, as in  other branches, a treatment, which singles out a particular period for exclusive  attention, arrives at a false perspective and unbalanced viewpoint. Those  musical principles which might appear axiomatic to a student whose researches  were limited to four or five centuries, might appear questionable to one whose  .viewpoint took in twenty, in the case of our schools, we propose to give the  children truth in germinal form — but the germs must be those of complete truth,not merely of half truths born of the fashion of a day.
The music work for the Fourth Year is embodied in two text books : i) the  present volume, which contains a series of graded exercises in rhythm and  notation, which will prepare the children to sing easily and intelligently from the  official books of the Church; 2) the Kyriale sen Ordinarium Missae in the official  musical notation of the Church, enriched by the rhythmic signs of Solesmes.
Both these books should be placed in the hands of the children. This division  of the matter into two volumes has been made in order to facilitate the use of  the Kyriale at Mass, and thus encourage the children to fulfill the purpose of  this study by taking an active part in the liturgical singing.
The technique to be acquired in the Fourth Year is largely rhythmical. The  child will have acquired in the earlier grades a grasp of tonal relationships, a  beautiful vocal production; an understanding of time as represented by the  modern measure and, to some extent, of the larger unit of the phrase. The  Fourth Book carries him a step further, into that  ethereal rhythm which  overrides measure, and soars above the earth in a movement as light as the  floating of a cloud. 5
The approach to rhythm cannot be merely mental. Rhythm is movement,and is acquired largely through the muscle sense. To feel the rhythm of  movement, and to get away from the material contrast of loud and soft, requires  exercises in movement by the children themselves. They must feel what it is to  soar, they must experience the difference between ” beating time ” and measuring  it in terms of flight. Each child should be provided with a light veil of tulle or  similar filmy material with which to carry out in action the rhythmic exercises  of the early chapters. These veils are no mere ornament but a fundamental  element in acquiring that vocal lightness, smoothness and legato, that soaring
quality, that ethereal flight wherein lies the charm and beauty of the Gregorian  phrase. The eye helps the ear, and the muscle sense reinforces both. Not only  are the veils essential at the early stages, but they serve as a corrective  throughout, should the voices become heavy, or the accents too material. The  teacher should not be satisfied until a smooth, gentle, fluid style is acquired.
The exercises of the early chapters should be repeated, and returned to daily,
until perfection is attained. They should be attacked boldly, at first, — not  tentatively, — and then gradually be refined and perfected.
Free rhythm has laws of its own, which are largely the laws of correct speech.
The basis of good singing is good reading. Before attempting to sing any of the  liturgical chants, the child should understand the meaning of the words and learn  to read them aloud in Latin with intelligent phrasing. The pronunciation  should be smooth, even, quiet, and they should bring out with a slight and very gradual crescendo the principal accent of the phrase. The next step is to read  the phrase on a single musical tone, keeping the same delicate crescendo in  rising to the principal accent, and letting the last syllabe of the phrase drop  almost unheard. This sense of the phrase must become automatic, for there is
nothing more destructive of the spirit of Gregorian Chant than a separate  staccato attack of each syllable. The essential thing is to maintain a perfect  legato, as on a stringed instrument, and never to sing as though by blows as on  a piano. On the other hand, it is equally incorrect to draw out some syllables  unduly, at the expense of others. The syllables must be of approximately even  length, though not mechanical, and their rhythmic relation to each other must  be felt and clearly expressed.
This book follows the same method as the earlier books of the series,proceeding from the simple to the complex, from the known to the related  unknown, and presenting each new idea through practical experience before the  memorized formula. The exercises of the early chapters seek to detach the  children from a necessary association of accent with stress, and to give them an  experimental knowledge of accent produced by a rising melody. The fundamental  exercises in the rhythm of movement are also introduced. During this  stage the familiar numbers are used as symbols of the tones. As soon as the
new ideas have been grasped we proceed to the study of the notation used by  the Church in her official books.
In acquiring the new rhythm the process is as follows:
1. Gestures; broad sweeping movements with veils during which the object
is to feel the alternate lift and weight, energy and repose.
2. The curves drawn on the board to music in which will be revealed any
angularity or jerkiness which may exist in the voice.
3. The finer, subtler rhythm of the voice after the elementary concepts have
been acquired through gesture; at this time the movements should be slight, with the hand only, so as not to disturb the vocal smoothness.

The arrangement of the chapters of Music Fourth Year differs from that of  the preceeding books in so far as the chapters no longer represent the work of  one week, but only developmental stages in study. The teacher’s attention is  also drawn to a change in the vocalise syllable which has previously been  represented by the letters Noo (pronounced as is the word Noon) which is now  represented by the syllable Nuy the u pronounced as in Latin (as in the English word rude).
In our presentation of the liturgical chant we have followed the rhythmic  principles of the Reverend Father Dom Andre Mocquereau of Solesmes through  whose genius and scholarly researches of half a century he has given to the  world a simple and artistic approach to this ancient music. It is a pleasure to  express to this great Master my profound gratitude for his generous help in the  work of recasting the matter in a form suited to children, and for his kindness in  personally marking the rhythm for all the melodies included in this book as well  as his permission to use matter already copyrighted.
Among those to whom special gratitude is due are the Very Reverend   Father Abbot of Solesmes for his kindness in placing at my disposal  while at Quarr Abbey every facility for successful study; the Reverend Father  Subercasseaux of Solesmes and the Reverend Mother Louise de Langavant of  the Abbey of Sainte Cecile for the beautiful pictures made especially for this  volume; and to Messrs. Desclée et Cie, for permission to use material of which  they hold the copyright.

JUSTINE WARD

(ETRE CONTINUE)

NOTES

1. “Psychology is revealing to the educators of today the fact that a concious content strictly  confined to the intellect lacks vitality and power of achievement. Every impression tends by  its very nature to flow out in expression, and the intellectual content that is isolated from  affective consciousness will be found lacking in dynamo-genetic content because it has failed to  become structural in the mind and remains external thereto. From the evidence in this field  we may safely formulate as a fundamental educative principle : that the presence in consciousness  of appropriate feeling is indispensable to mental assimilation.” (Shields-Philosophy of  Education.)

X” The Church, in her teaching, reaches the whole man: his intellect, his will, his emotions,
his senses, his imagination, his aesthetic sensibilities, his memory, his muscles, and his powers  of expression. She neglects nothing in him : she lifts up his whole being and strengthens and cultivates all his faculties in their interdependence.” (Shields-Philosophy of Education, p. 314.)

3″ The Church, in her teaching, reaches the whole man: his intellect, his will, his emotions,
his senses, his imagination, his aesthetic sensibilities, his memory, his muscles, and his powers  of expression. She neglects nothing in him : she lifts up his whole being and strengthens and  cultivates all his faculties in their interdependence.” (Shields-Philosophy of Education, p. 314.)

4.Revue des Jeunes¡ March 1922.

5 ” It is not easy, in our day, to describe rhythm, and particularly the free musical rhythm of Gregorian Chant, because even those educated musicians who vaguely sense in practice the  beauties of rhythm, recognise in theory nothing beyond measure. Our modern text books deal  merely with the study of measures and fail to rise to the conception of the ancients regarding a rhythmic movement animating all music and all speech. ” (Dom Andre  Moquereau — Introduction  ” Nombre Musical Grégorien “, page 19.)
” Like the classical Greek musiciens, we must distinguish between form and matter in rhythm.
By matter is meant the tones, the words, the motions of the body… which are capable of taking  on a rhythmic character. In themselves these substrata of rhythm are not rhythmic, but they  can be made to take on a rhythmic form, according to the creative will of the artist. “ÍDom Andre Mocquereau — Nombre Musical Grégorien.)

 

 

according to the principles of  DOM ANDRE MOCQUEREAU  OF SOLESMES
BY  JUSTINE WARD

source  THE CATHOLIC EDUCATION PRESS

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