(Ε)ΙΝ-ΔΙΑ (γ)- THE MEDITERRANEAN THEORY (LΗ)


(BEING CONTINUED FROM  14/07/13 )

THE GREAT WARRIOR TRIBES OF MUDIRAJA – MUTHURAJA

TRIBAL BACKGROUND OF MUDIRAJAS

The Mudiraj – Mudiraja – Muthuraja warrior community is one of the ancient royal community of South India which obsorbed all kinds of warrior tribes into its fold. But the back bone population of this community came from Bhil, Bhil variants, Kolis, and Koli variants with hunting & fishing background. There are also their mixed blood clans / rajputs resulting from matrimonial alliances with Aryans and Scythians. Some of them having mixed blood became agriculturilists. These were the people of wild, militant, ferocious and warrior in their character. They were basically soldiers, commandos, daredevils, suicide squad members, administrators, ministers, chiefs, chieftains, kings and also emperors. It is a community that can not be easily forced to submit to alien rule and domination. When these warriors failed to win in open wars, they launched to gorilla warfare. Even they could dare to commit crimes against their enemies.
Dravidian Warrior Tribes were the sole rulers of ancient India till Aryans and Scythians (Sakas) arrived into this country. After their arrival, the native Dravidian tribes got mixed up with with them and developed matrimonial relations. Thus the Dravidian Bhils, Aryans, Scythians, Indo-aryans and Indo-Scythians ruled this country just like native Indians.These Indian and Indianised Hindu rulers resisted the Muslim invaders and the imperial British as they these new alien forces started grabbing their land, forests & country and also started imposing their religion, culture & customs on the native Indians reducing them to slaves.
It has been observed that the Mudiraj community of South India always fought with their enemies to protect their country, religion, culture and customs. They believe in freedom of worship and practice of their own tribal culture and customs. Mudiraja tribes became Hindus but they never stopped worshipping mother Goddess, the essence of tribal warrior religion. The great quality of these dravidian tribal sections is that they can accept all kinds of religious faiths in the world but they never forget their mother Goddess.
Many sections of Mudiraj ( Muthuraja ) community of South India include several Warrior Tribes that spread across the country from Sindhu River to Kaveri River Basins. A great many Mudiraja & related kings laid down their lives in opposing the Islamic invaders who tried to destroy Hinduism and their Hindu culture. The Mudiraja warriors also opposed and revolted against the British rule in India. They were all declared as Criminal Tribes by British when they miserably failed to control them from fighting against British Rule. Muthracha, Kallars, Maravars, Bedars, Pardhis, Kaikadis, Kuruvars, korawas, Boyars, Erukalas, etc are some Warrior Tribes of Mudiraja who were labelled as Criminal Tribes to deal with them mercilessly through oppressive methods.
Veera Pandya Katta Bommana, Rana Pratap Singh, Rani Abbakka are some of the great patriotic rulers belonging to Bunt – Mudiraja – Muthuraja warrior community & block. Hence, we must declare them as the first freedom fighters of India and salute them for inspiring our leaders like Mangal Pande, Bhagat Singh, Subhas Chandra Bose, Mahatma Gandhi, Jawaharlal Nehru, and so on during British rule.

KALLARS
The Kallars, Maravars & agamudayars of Tamil coutry are part of Tamil Muthurajas. They were the three clands who ruled Chola, Chera & Pandyan dynasties of South India. The Kallar and Maravar who had been referred to as the military tribes of the southern provinces by early British writers were classified as criminal tribes towards the end of the nineteenth century. Piranmalai Kallars were in the list of criminal tribes. Servaikarars, Kallars and Marwars subcastes of Tamil Muthuraja community and they not only fought against Muslim Invaders but also revolted against British imperialists.
The Kallar, Maravar and Agamudaiyar communities constitute the Kshatriya or warrior class of Tamil Nadu, South India. They are all believed to have originated from an ancient people called Kalabhrar.
Kallars, Marvars and Agamudayars together form the Mukkulathor ( three clans) group of warrior community who once uprooted and ruled the chola, chera and pandyan countries. That is why that these clans are believed to be the descendants of Kalabhras. The clan name “Kallar” seems to be gradual modification of the name “Kalabhra”. The kallars and kalvars seem to be one and the same people who descended from Kalabhras or kalappalars. Many historians believe that Mutharayars are the descendants of Kalabhras.
Kalabeera => Kalabira => Kalabra => Kalabhra
Kalabra => Kalbra => Kalbar => Kalvar => Kallar
Dr Spencer Wells and Dr. Pitchappan have found an ancient DNA marker in the blood of Kallar that links them to the very first modern humans who migrated out of Africa about 60,000 years ago and travelling through the southern coastline of Asia had eventually reached Australia. Based on this theory, it is assumed that the Piramala Kallars are the oldest human inhabitants of the subcontinent.
It is believed that the Maravar, Agamudayars, Thanjai Cholarkula Kalla Nattars, Pandiya Vellalars, Chola Vellalars, Chera Vellalar, Vellala Mudaliyars, Agamudaya Mudaliars, Conjeevaram Mudaliars and, Udayars have all descended from Kallars. The surnames used by the kallar people are Ambalakarar, Servai, Vandaiyar, Thalaivar, Nattaar (not Nadar), etc. Women use the title Nachiyaar and it is a general practice in Southern Tamil Nadhu to address a Thevar woman as “Nachchiyaar”. As per Chola – Mutharayar research center, the Ambalakarar and Servaikarar are surnames of Tamil Muthuraja.
The Kallars of Dindigul, Trichy, Thanjavur, Theni, Madurai, Sivaganga, Pudukottai and Ramnad Districts have very distinct surnames. Some of the most common names are Sendapiriyar, Alathondamar, Ambalam, Aarsuthiyar, Kaadavaraayar, Kalingarayar, Vandaiyaar, Thanjaraayar, Chozhangaraayar, Kandiyar, Pursaar, Vaanavaraayar, Mazhavaraayar, Pallavaraayar, Ponnapoondar, Pullavaraayar, Servai, Karaimeendar,Vanavarayar,Vairayar,Ponpethiar,Gopalar, Thondaimaan, Thevar, Kandapillai, Vayaadiyar, Vanniar, Nattar, Alankara Priyar, Munaiyatriyar,Keerudayar, Saaluvar, Manraayar,Kaadavaraayar, Madhavarayar, Onthiriyar, Serumadar, Vambaliar, Thenkondaar, Mankondaar, Kaaduvetiyaar, Sozhagar, Chozanga Nattar etc. There are over 700 surnames in use. Many of these surnames can be seen in the surname list of Tamil Muthurajas.
Kallars are found largely in Madurai, Sivagangai, Pudukkottai, Thanjavur, Trichy, Theni and Ramanathapuram districts of Tamil Nadu. One of their popular deities is Kallazhagar who is a warrior form of Lord Thirumala or Venkadavan. Kalabhras are said to belong Thirupathi region and attacked the Tamil country.
Kallar is one of the three communities which constitute the Mukkalathor confederacy. European eyewitnesses of the 18th century have made mention of Kallars as “a fearless tribe show many signs of independence and non-submission to any form of subjugation”. They were expert soldiers and constituted the bulk of Chola and Pandya armies.
One of the principal weapons of the Kallars is the boomerang. This has evoked comparisons with the Australian aborigines and vouch for the theory that Kallars were one of the earliest people to inhabit the Indian subcontinent. The principal occupation of Kallars is farming.
Ambalakarars of Muthuraja are Kallars : There are various sub-castes of Kallars, amongst whom the Ambalakarar is the most important. Ambalakarar is also one of the surnames of Tamil Muthuraja community and this indicates that Muthurajas are the descendants of Kalabeeras. They were a warlike people who strongly resisted every British attempt to subjugate them. They are found in Madurai and Sivaganga districts. In these districts, each village is headed by an Ambalakarar (president of an assembly) and the Ambalakarars took upon themselves the power to adjudicate disputes that arose among the inhabitants in the “nadu”, belonging to different castes. They used to hear complaints, hold inquiries and punish the offenders. They wielded considerable powers to intervene in any kind of transaction or transfer of property among the people. No land could be alienated from one man to another without the permission of the Ambalakarars.
Piramalai Kallars : Another important Kallar subcaste is the Piramalai Kallar. They are highly conservative and have preserved their customs and traditions to the present day. They are also believed to be the oldest inhabitants of the Tamil country with reports of their presence going back to Tamil literary works of the 4th century B.C. They are found mainly in the districts of Madurai and Theni. Their popular deity is Amman, the Mother Goddess.
Portions of the Madura and Tanjore districts are divided into areas known as nadus, a name which, as observed by Mr. Nelson, is specially applicable to Kallan tracts. On the whole there were 37 “nadus” in the two districts, of which 14 were said to be in the Sivaganga region. Kallan or Kallar denotes a caste group, which is part of the Mukkulathor, now a dominant caste in the southern districts of Tamil Nadu. Maravar and Agamudaiyar are the other components of the Mukkulathor community. The Chola country of Tanjore is stated to be the original abode of the Kallars before they migrated to the Madurai region, the then Pandya kingdom. Agriculture was said to be their major occupation. “Nadu” was a group of villages under the Chola administrative system. This Nadu was known as Mutha in Telugu speaking lands and the head of Mutha was Mutharacha ( Mudira).
Nadu = Mutha

Unlike many other martial castes of the subcontinent, the Kallar and the Maravar were not yeoman peasants who dropped the plough for the sword only in times of war. They had to seek battles even when their king or chieftain was not at war. Most of the hero-stones found in Tamilnadu commemorate such battles between groups of Kallar or Maravar.
Some of the warrior gods who are worshipped to this day in southern Tamil Nadu are Maravar, who distinguished themselves in such battles which took place even after the British began to abolish the culture of predatory war. The bow-song of Eena Muthu Pandian, a Tamil demigod, describes the martial life and heroic deeds of that Maravar warrior who lived in British times. The warrior’s virtue was to desire the bliss of the hero’s heaven; it was degrading for him to seek fertile lands. The Purananooru (an anthology of Tamil heroic poems) derides the newly arisen kings for their interest in rice yielding fields. War was the sole occupation and aim of the Tamil warrior clans. A mother describes the Tamil martial ethos � ‘To bring forth and rear a son is my duty; To make him a warrior is the father’s duty’. To make spears for him, is the blacksmith’s; to bear bright sword and do battle, to butcher enemy’s elephants and return, that is the young man’s duty” .
The most important structure which gave the Kallar and Maravar immense power in the Tamil country-side was the system of kaval. It was abolished in 1832. This has been the traditional means by which the Kallar, Maravar and Ahampadiyar derived their livelihood in times of peace when they were not employed as soldiers. Many efforts were taken to put a stop to the kaval services of the Tamil military castes in the countryside in the first half of th nineteenth century, culminating in the organization of a new police system in 1860, which recruited mostly from among castes which were considered favourable to the British. The Nadu-Ambalakarar institution of the Kallar by which justice was traditionally dispensed in regions dominated by them was also abolished to make way for the penal and judiciary system introduced by the British. Deprived of their traditional occupations of kaval and soldiering and in some instances of their lands, a large section of the Tamil military castes became, in the eyes of the colonial government, a delinquent mass, a danger to the rural social order.

Vandayars are mostly Kallars
Vandayar’s are basically from Tamilnadu and Andhra pradesh ( before seperation of Madra state). The name Vandayar is native to Tanjore District and it spread all over the world. The surname belongs to kallar & Maravar castes of “mukkulathore” clans probably called in the nation DEVAR. The kings with the name Thondaiman / Vandayar are all from kallar community. These are called “PATTA PEYAR”. Further, it is well known that Kallars are the deescendants of Kalabhras. It is also agreed by many historians that Muthurajas are also the descendants of Kalabhras. A large number of Ambalakarars are part of Kallar and Maravar clans.
Kalabhras => Kalabras => Kalabars => Kalbars => Kallars.
Vandayar nickname is very popular in Tamil Nadu particularly in Thanjavur District.There are thousands of families having the same Nickname ‘Vandayar’ in and around Tamilnadu.It is a belief that the Vandayar Families belong to same blood relation and hence they are all considered to be Brothers and Sisters.
VANDAYAR name seems to be a modification of the name VANRAYAR
Vanarayars ruled parts of Tamilnadu and Karnataka. The name or title could be due to gradual modification of Vanrayar. Thevar – Pillai – Mudali are all same once & Many Pillai Kings were there. Kaduvetti Muttara is known to belong to Banarayars lineage. Even Mahabali Chakravarty too hailed from the same lineage.
Bana = Vana = Forest
Rayar = Raya = Raja = King or Chief
Banarayar => Vanarayar => Vanrayar => Vandayar
Vandayars could be Thondaimans from Thirupathi Region
The kings with the name Thondaiman / Vandayar are all from kallar community. These are called “PATTA PEYAR”. The Pallava kings at several places are called Thondamans or Thondaiyarkon. A King named Akasa Raja who belonged to the Lunar race was ruling over Thondamandalam (Thirupathi). Akasha Raja also had a brother named Thondaman. Akasharaja was the son of King Mitravarman of Thondamandalam.Balaji, Lord of the Seven Hills, Vishnu himself, got married to Princess Padmavati, beautiful daughter of King Akasaraja of Thondamandalam and Queen Dharanidevi.
Vellore District was also known as ” Thondamandalam Region” in early History of South India. In Second half of the Ninth Century A.D. Vellore District formed part of the pallava kingdom. The Chola emperor, Raja Raja Chola, renamed “Thondamandalam” as “Jayamkonda Chola mandalam” after one of his titles.
Thondamandalam was a prosperous land. Its capital was Kanchipuram. Thondaman built Mahabalipuram : Mamallapuram is a small town on the east coast of India and is 58 km away from Chennai.The monuments here are among the oldest in the south and belong to ancient Thondamandalam. They were created under the patronage of the Pallava Kings who ruled North Tamilnadu from their capital at Kancheepuram between 500 and 700 A.D. The five rathas and the shore temple at Mamallapuram rank high among the best specimens of ancient Indian architecture. During that period, Mamallapuram was one of the main sea ports on the East Coast.
The demilitarization of the Tamil region did not spare even the Kallar caste which had rendered valuable service to the British in the important wars of the Carnatic,by which they subjugated the whole of south India.The hereditary chiefs of this military caste were the kings of Pudukottai � the Thondamans, who had sided with the British against Hyder Ali and later his son, Tippu Sultan. In many of the early wars, the British fought on behalf of the Nawab of Arcot in south India, the Kallar had made up a sizeable portion of their forces. But the Kallar and the other Tamil military castes had to be disfranchised to rid Tamil society of its ancient habits and culture of predatory warfare.
After the fall of the Cholas of Thanjavur in the 14th century the area came under the rule of the Madurai kings, Pallavarayars and Thondaimans of Pudukottai according to J. Raja Mohammed, Curator of the Pudukottai Government Museum. The Thondaimans of Pudukkottai rose to power by about the end of 17th century. In the year 1640 Ragunatha Raya Thondiman formed Pudukkottai State. The Thondaimans of Pudukkottai came to rule with full sovereignty over the Pudukkottai area from the middle of the 17th century till its amalgamation with the rest of India after Indian Independence in 1947.The royal family of Thondaimans ruled upto 1948. Pudukkottai province became a part of Tiruchirappalli district.
In later centuries, the Thondaiman rulers, while nominally feudatories of the Ramnad state, often pursued an independent foreign policy, a trend common in all parts of India at that time. Certainly the most consequential of such ventures was their alliance with the BritishRaj in the 18th century, first against the Nawab of Arcot and later against the Kingdom of Mysore. Pudukkotai finally came under formal British protection in 1763. This was arguably unavoidable, since the Thondaimans were much menaced in that period by a resurgent Mysore ruled by Hyder Ali and Tipu Sultan. Tipu Sultan had sought to leverage the power of the France against his United Kingdom adversaries, and Pudukkotai, in common with its neighbours such as Thanjavur and Travancore, found it expedient to ally with the British.
The ancestors of the Pudukkottai ruling line of Thondaimans, are migrants from Thirupathi region in the Thondaimandalam, the northern stretch of the ancient Tamil Kingdom, along with the Vijaynagar army, which was in engagement in this part of territory in the early 17th century. It is probable that one among them got some lands assigned to him by the local Pallavarayar chieftain and settled down at Karambakudi and Ambukovil area, and became the chieftain of the area, later came to be called as the progenitor of Thondaimans of Pudukkottai ruling house. According to the legendary account found in a Telugu poem, Thondaiman Vamasavali, the Thondaimans belonged to Indravamsa and the first ruler was Pachai Thondaiman.
Aranthangi is ruled by Thondaimans (Different from Pudukkottai Thondaimans) in earlier days.Not much is known about the Aranthangi Thondaimans who were ruling Aranthangi from the 15th to 18th century, as fuedal chiefs under the Pandyas, Sethupathis of Ramanathapuram, Nayaks of Thanjavur and Vijayanagar kings. Though there are references to the Aranthangi Thondaimans in the inscriptions in the temples in Avudayarkovil, Alappiranathan, Pillaivayal, Aranthangi, Kovilur, Paramandur, Palankarai, Piranmalai, Thiruvarankulam, Kurumbur, details of these rulers are rather sketchy.
Though there are references 60 Thondaimans as ruling chiefs, administrative and military chiefs, royal personages etc., in quite a few places, at different points of time, it was very difficult to bring them all under a single clan, or connect one another ethnically or politically. Similarly the Aranthangi Thondaimans were an independent line of chieftains, ruling from Aranthangi, and their reign flourished even about 200 years before the rule of the Thondaimans of Pudukottai (which started in about 1640). Aranthangi Thondaimans were the chief patrons of the Avudayarkovil temple, and had liberally donated to the maintenance of the temple, as indicated by copper plates in the possession of the Tiruvavaduthurai Adheenam.
An inscribed granite pillar, giving details of the hitherto little known Aranthangi Thondaimans, and also of the establishment of a `Thannerpandal’ (drinking water centre) for pilgrims proceeding to Rameswaram, has been discovered by Mr. Raja Mohamed, curator of the Pudukottai Museum, and secretary of the Pudukottai History Forum. It was customary in those days to inscribe in copper plates, the gifts of land made by Thondaimans, and which had already been inscribed in granite stones. Such corrobarative inscriptions in granite and copper plates prove the genuineness of the gifts. The inscriptions also refer to the donation of land for the presiding deity, Lord Thyagaraja, of Tiruvarur. The pillar has recently been shifted to the Pudukottai musuem.
They had gifted lands etc. to Tiruvarur, Rameswaram, Kanchipuram and also Benares temples. About 25 copper plates grants of Aranthangi Thondaimans have been recorded so far, and 16 of them are in the Thiruvavaduthurai Adheenam. No places or forts have been found in Aranthangi, except a few remains of the dilapidated walls of an old fort. Attempts are being made to study in depth, about Aranthangi Thondaimans. Ancient granite pillar with inscriptions which was found in Nattani village in Pudukottai district recently.
The famous ‘Thondai kingdom’ (which lies to the north of Tamil Nadu), which had been ruled by the Thondaimans had many scholars to its credit. To the south west of Kanchi (Kanchi is considered the Holiest of the seven holy places of pilgrimage for attaining salvation) lies a holy place called ‘Sumangali’
Pandya king – Muttarasa Tirumalei Maha Vilivanathi Rayar was a Vandiyar
In 1451, it is said a Nayakkan named Lakkana brought to Madura four persons, who he declared to be the true Pandya stock, and set them, or one of them upon the throne. The names of these four are given as follows, namely :

  • (1) Sundara Tol Maha Vilivanathi Rayar (Suntara tora mavili vanathi rayer)
  • (2) Kaleiyar Somanar ( kaliyar somanar)
  • (3) Anjatha Perumal ( Anjatha Perumal)
  • (4) Muttarasa Tirumalei Maha Vilivanathi Rayar( Muttarasatirunali mavili vanathi rayer)

These kings can be seen with titles Muttarasa, Mavili and Vanathirayar and from the following information they seem to belong Kallar branch of Thevar (Mukkulathor) clans. For more details on Kallars and Vandiyars, readers may like to refer to webpage “WAR-TRIBES” in this website “MUDIRAJA”
Mahabali => Mahavali => Mavali => Mavili => Vili
Vanathirayar => Vanadirayar => Vandiyar
Mahavali + Vanathirayar => Maha Vilivanathi Rayar
The surnames used by the Thevar people are Ambalakarar, Servai, Vandaiyar, Mannaiyar, Nattar (not Nadar), etc. The Kallars of Dindigul, Trichy, Thanjavur, Theni, Madurai, Sivaganga, Pudukottai and Ramnad Districts have very distinct surnames.Some of the most common names included are Vanathirayar, Ambalam, Kalingarayar, Vandaiyaar, Thanjaraayar, Vaanavaraayar, Pallavaraayar, Servai, Vanavarayar, Thondaimaan, Thevar, Vanniar, Nattaar, Saaluvar, Onthiriyar, Kaaduvetiyaar, ,olivarayar etc. There are over 700 surnames in use.Now it is clear that the present day Vandayars (Kallars) are the descendants of ancient or vanarayars or vanars or vanathirayars.
Vaanavaraayar => Vanavarayar => Vanarayar
Vanarayar => Vanrayar =>Vandayar => Vandiyar
Vanarayar => Vanadirayar => Vanathirayar
It is said that “Vanar” or “Banar” were called “Vanathirayar” and they claimed to have won over all the three Moovendar and briefly ruled Madurai after chasing away “Pandyans”. If it is so, these Bana kings could be the part of Kalabhras who invaded South India displacing the then Chola, Chera & Pandya kings. . The title Muttarasa used by some of these kings too point to this fact that they could be kalabhras as it is widely believed that Muthurajas are the descendants of Kalabhras. Even the name ” Kallar ” it self is a modification of the word Kalabrar or Kalabar or Kalabhra.
Kalabra => Kalabrar => Kalabar => Kalbar => Kallar
Vanarayas and Bana kings were one and the same
Bana : is a gotra of Jats found in Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh in India. Banas are descendants of King Banasur. Their capital was at Bayana in Bharatpur. Vana Ganga river gets name from Banas. The princess of Bayana was Usha married to Anirudh. There is a temple at Bayana constructed in memory of Usha. Virkvansi Jats and Sinsinwar Jats of Bharatpur later on occupied Bayana. Bana is a rigvedic ruling clan. Byawar near Ajmer and Bhadawar, Kadiyar Khanda in Bikaner, Giradhpur, Chitauli, and Chandaudi etc famous villages of Meerut are inhabited by Bana jats.Bana is a village in Churu district inhahited by Bana gotra Jats.this village established by bhoj who is bana .
Thiru Narayanapuram :
Location: Thottiam taluk, Trichy district. 1 km from Varadaraja puram.
Main Deity: Veda Narayanar, in lying posture with Sridevi, & Bodhevi thayar
Importance: Swayambu Veda Narayana Perumal on Adi seshan with 10 heads. Sridevi & Bhodevi doing seva.Prahaladha as a small boy. Brahma got his veda upadesam in this place.
Story: Once Mahabala chakravarthy Vanarayar was travelling towards Mysore from this place to fight and expand his kingdom. At night they had to halt here and he had a dream. Vedanarayana perumal under the mud was to be removed and installed in a temple built by him. After doing the pooja he should proced further then he will be the King without any effort. The King as he was told and his wish was fulfilled.
Another in the purana is Arayar ( Muthuraja ) family came to worship here. That day fire broke and the temple with temporary structure got fire and Arayar to save god from fire he with his family lay on the idol and attained moksha. Prahaladha is seen in the temple. After Hirnya vadham, Perumal was in anger prahaladha worshipped him and asked him to be in santha swaroopam in this place forever. Brahma was of ego that only he can create and perumal wanted to teach him a lesson so he created an ugly person and sent him to Brahma. Looking at this person. brahma was confused as to who could have done. To clear his doubt. he asked Veda Narayana perumal, who could be. Perumal replied him that since Brahma is the god of creation it could be no one else. Then suddenly the ugly person disappeared, and his ego was destroyed. Brahma asked Narayana to preach veda to him. This was the place, where veda was preached to Brahma, so we see the right palm of perumal is kept open as giving upadesa to Brahma. There are 4 vedas as pillows to Veda Narayanar here which is unique. Anjeneya in the front pillar is important because people here keep him as a judge for every matter. The temple is a small one but well maintained.
Mahabali
Bali or Mahabali may also be written or said as “Vali” or “Mahavali”. Bali – founder of the varnas; descendant of Yayati. Mahabali (Daitya) – Chakravarti (noble king) who sacrificed his kingdom to Vamana, a.k.a. “Vairochana Bali” (son of Virochanab Bali), “Mabali” and “Mavali”; descendant of Turvasu lineage. Mahabali Banarasa (Bana) – King of the Bana tribe in Gandanadu.

Bana Kingdom
Kaduvetti Muttaraja is said to belong Bana lineage as per some insciptions. The Bana kings ruled parts of South India. In many cases as subordinate position and some times taking major roles. The Banas had their capital at various places at different times, including Kolar. Kolar was a capital city of Western Ganga Muttarasa kings. Bana Vidhyadhara, son of Malladeva (Married a grand-daughter of the Ganga King Siva maharaja ( Shivamara ?) , who reigned between 1000 and 1016AD) .
The Bana kingdom , records of which in canarese are chiefly to be found in the Eastern fringe of Myand in Punganor, was established early in 8th century in a tract of country of which the North and South boundaries roughly corresponded to to those of present district of Chittor, while it extended from Kolar on the West to Kalahasti on the East. Later in the Century, this kindom evidently increased rapidly in the power and absorbed large terretories to the North. Bana inscriptions of _this period boast of possessing “the country west of the Andhra Dominions” or all the country West of the “road to the Telugu country, ” by which must be meant the East coast road from Conjeevaram to Nellore.These Bana Muttaras kins seems to be defeated Vijayalaya Chola.

Vandiyars and Pandiyars could be one and the same
Mukkulathor, Mukulathar or Mukulathor is a name for a group of three related social groups or castes of Tamil Nadu state of India. The related castes are Kallar, Maravar and Agamudaiyar. The commonly used titles & surnames of this community, are Thevar, Nattaar, Padaiyachee, Thalaivar, Ambalakarar, vandiyars, salvars, kaduvettiar..this title differ according to the region they live .etc These people could be the decendents of the Pandiars who are still live today in South India.
Vanarayar => Vanrayar => Vandayar => Vandiyar
Vandiyar => Pandiyar => Pandiyan => Pandian
Vandiyar => Pandiyar => Pandiyan => Pandiya => Pandya
Most of the Vandayars or Vandiyars are Kallars. It appears that the title Vandiyar gradually modofied to Pandiyar. This could be possible as Kallars claim to be the descendats of rulers of Pandyan kingdom. Pandiyars are said to have taken over MADURAI in around 300BCE according to Sangam Literature.
The Maruthu Pandiyar brothers (Periya Maruthu & Chinna Maruthu) ruled Sivagangai, Tamil Nadu during the last part of the 18th century and they were the first to issue a proclamation of independence from the British rule from Trichy Thiruvarangam Temple, Tamil Nadu on June 10, 1801, which is 56 years before the North Indian rebellion – Sepoy mutiny of 1857.

Inscriptional references to Bana or Vana kings
Tamil Inscriptions – part – iii – Inscriptions of the CHOLA DYNASTY
No. 76. Udayendiram Plates of Prithivipati II. Hastimalla- Prithivipati II. was a dependent of Parantaka I. and received from him the dignity of ‘lord of the Banas’ (v. 21), who had been conquered by the Chola king (v. 9). He defeated the Hill-chiefs (Girindra) and the Pallavas (v. 23) and bore the titles ‘lord of Parivipuri’ and ‘lord of Nandi,’ i.e., of the Nandidurga hill near Bangalore.
Ganga king Prithivipati II was conferred “lord of the Banas” by Parantaka I Chola. Banas are mentioned in Tamil Nadu as late as 13th and 15th century. Banas had different titles in different regions at different times. Some of them include, Vanar/ Vanara/ Vanavarayar/ Vanakovarayar/ Ponparappinan, etc.
MISCELLANEOUS INSCRIPTIONS IN KANNADA -VOLUME IX – Part – I -CHOLAS -No. 299. -(A.R. No. 332 of 1912.) -ON A SLAB SET UP IN A FIELD AT KARSHANAPALLE, PUNGANUR ZAMINDARI, CHITTOOR DISTRICT.-The record is not dated. It refers itself to the reign of Sembiyan Mahabali-Banarasa and to the rule of Vikkiyanna over Pulinadu sixty. It records the death of Vikki and another hero in a battle with Pallvi(a)-Dhavala and that the hero’s brother Kundiga set up stone in their memory. Sembiyan Mahabali-Banarasa was a subordinate of the Chola king Parataka I.
INSCRIPTIONS OF RAJAKESARIVARMAN
Volume_23/pandya_1.html – No. 430 (Page No 327) – (A. R. No. 430 of 1907) – Sinnamanaur, Periyakulam Taluk, Madurai District – Rajasimhesvara temple � on the same wall – Jat. Vira-Pandya (I) : year 26 : 1278-79 A.D. (?) – This seems to record a similar gift of an impost on certain articles of merchandise like betal-nut, pepper and rice agreed to contributed by the members of the community Padinenvishayattar of the four nagaram for a festival in Margali in the temple of Rajasimhesvaramudaiya-Nayanar at Arikesarinallur in Ala-nadu. Mention is also made of a bazaar to the east of Valangai -mikaman-tirumandapam built by (an officer) Pandiyadaraiyar in the name of Pillai Kulasekhara -Mahabali-Vanarayar. The members are stated to have met for their deliberation in the temple of Vikramapandisvaramudaiya -Nayanar at Sivallavan-padaividu.
INSCRIPTIONS COLLECTED DURING THE YEAR 1906-07 – PANDYA – No. 127 (Page No 99 ) (A. R. No. 127 of 1907) – Pappankulam, Ambasamudram Taluk, Tirunelveli District – Sidhajnanesvara temple — on the same wall – Mar. Kulasekhara – is is also an inscription of the same king. The regnal year is lost but the details of date can be read as (Makara) ba. 14, Thursday, Anushanm. It registers another sale of land in their village by the same Uravar of Vikramapandya-nallur to the temple for 928 Danapala -guligai -panam. This also refers to a previous mortgage of the land made in the 8th year of the king. With two individual by name Vanarayar and Sulapanippillai for 728 panam which seems to have been paid back now to the mortgages out of this sale amount.
South Indian Inscriptions : 23. We are not quite so certain of the identity of Jatavarman Vira-pandya whose inscriptions from Sinnamanur and Kallidaikkurichchi (Nos.430 and 117) are respectively dated in the 26th and 28th years of his reign, but do not begin with any preamble giving his exploits. The former refers to a hall in the temple built by an officer of the king and called the vangai-Mikaman-Mandapam after the surname of one Pillai Kulasekhara-Mahabali-Vanarayar. No. 117 registers an endowment for a feeding house made by a certain Tirunilakantan Rajakkanayanar alias Tondaimanar of Puduvur in Ala-nadu.
SOUTH INDIAN INSCRIPTIONS – No. 6 – (A.R. No. 327 of 1912.) -ON A SLAB SET UP IN A FIELD AT KARSHNAPALLE, SAME SAMINDARI AND DISTRICT – This is not dated and refers itself to the reign of the Bana king Banarasa, who was also in charge of the Ganga six-thousand province when Ballaha i.e., the Rashtrakuta king led a campaign against Kaduvetti, for not paying tribute. On this occasion a certain servant of Banatattaran, himself a servant of Vijayitta, while returning on a horse near Kuntiala, died after slaying Ganamurti. Since the characters of the record are of the 9th century A.D. it may be assigned to the time of Vijayaditya II.
No. 7. (A.R. No. 313 of 1912.) – ON A VIRAGAL SET UP IN THE BACK-YARD OF A HOUSE IN CHALAMANGALA, SAME ZAMINDARI AND DISTRICT – This id damaged and not dated. It refers itself to the reign of king Banarasa of the Mahavali Bana family and seems to record the death of a warrior in a battle.
No. 8 (A.R. No. 323 of 1912.) -ON A SLAB BUILT INTO THE NADI-MANDAPA IN THE ARKESVARA TEMPLE AT KARSHANAPALLE, SAME ZAMINDARI AND DISTRICT – The record is not dated and is damaged. It mentions Banarasa of the Mahavali kula ruling over [Ganga] six-thousand province.
No. 11 – (A.R. No. 543 of 1906.) – ON A SLAB SET UP IN A FIELD IN FRONT OF THE VILLAGE CHADALLA, ON PUNGANUR-CHDUM ROAD, SAME ZAMINDARI AND DISTRICT – This undated record refers itslef to the reign of the Bana king Mahaali-Banarasa. It states that when some one was ruling Valla, situated in Badugavali, and when Banarasa led a campaign on behalf of Permanadigal against the Nolamba, Rachamalla and Mayindadi, Madhavarasa of Kinganur fought and, having slaing a number of men and horses in the battle of Soremadi, died. In recognition of his service the king bestowed (upon his family) land of three khamba.

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(TO BE CONTINUED)

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