(BEING CONTINUED FROM 05/12/2011)
Bersame was the oldest name of Aitos , p. 32. Duridanov translates it as Birch
city, having connection with Slavic word for birch – береза (bereza) (Russ) бреза – breza
Burtidizos, Burdapa, Burdones, Burticom are connected by Duridanov , p. 34
and Georgiev , p. 70, with common Slavic word BROD – ford, also with Old Church
Slavonic БРЕСТИ – BRESTI – to wade.
Chalastra was a settlement on the lower flow of river Vardar. Duridanov explains it
as having two components: KALO – mud and STRUA – stream. , p. 34. Кал (kal) is
word for mud in Bulgarian, Russian, Serbo-Croatian, in Slovene skaljen means muddy
and kaluža means – marsh. Cтруя (struja) is name for a stream in Bulgarian, Slovene,
Russian. Chalastra thusly meant: Settlement along muddy river.
Debre is the name of a Thracian fortress near Haemus Mountain, mentioned by
Procopius. In my opinion Debre corresponds to Blg. дебра (debra) and Slovenian deber
– abyss. , p. 312.
Duro-storum, Doro storum was the ancient name of Silistra. Duro corresponds to
common Slavic dvor – court, enclosed place, the closests match is Slovene word duri – door.
Stor(um) corresponds to Bulgarian strana – country, Russian storona – country , p.
18. The meaning of Duro-storum is thus Enclosed country.
Dyme, Dimum are connected by Duridanov with common Slavic word dim – smoke
(here in the sense – Smoky, dark place) , p. 35.
Eβρος, Hebros was the oldest name for Bulgarian river Maritsa. Georgiev interprets
Eβρος as broad, name related to Greek εύρύς – broad , pp. 246, 247, but in my opinion
both Eβρος and Maritsa mean red. Eβρος is related to Old Bulgarian БРОЩЪ (BROŠTĂ)
dark red, and Maritsa is related to Bulgarian морав (morav) – red and моравея (moraveja)
– I redden. The meaning of Eβρος and Maritsa is Red river. That is logical, because the
river goes through clay grounds and its colour is red-brown, at least in the lower stream
– Plovdiv, Dimitrovgrad. Related hydronyms are river Ibar in Serbia, Ibr in Ukraine,
Maroş in Rumania, and Marasantiya – the ancient (Hittite) name of the Turkish river
Kizil Ermak (literally Red river).
Ereta was name of a city south of Odessoss (Varna, Bulgaria). Duridanov derives
its name from the verb – to boil: virtu In Lithuanian, vreti in common Slavic , p. 36.
Original name was Vereta, but later the initial V was dropped just like in the names
Vedesa and Vedoni.
Γάρήσκος, Tugu-gerum, Ρολλι-γεράς contain the particle gar-ger, which Detchev
connects with Cymr. garth – cape, mountain, , p. 10, to it I add the common Slavic
gora – mountain. Related to Γάρήσκος, Tugu-gerum, Ρολλι-γεράς are Κάρά-βιζύή, Κάρ-
δενθής, having the particle Κάρ – kar, corresponding to common Slavic gora – mountain
and Bulgarian gore – up, above , p. 16 and to old Slovene word kar – rock.
Haimos, Haimon Haemus were the ancient names of Bulgarian mountain Stara
planina. Duridanov claims that Haimon had older form Saiman – the original Thracian
one, coming from Indo-European sei – I connect, present in Sanskrit siman – ridge, top,
streap. Today the ancient name is preserved only in the most eastern part of Stara planina – cape Emine. The initial Thracian S was transformed in H under Greek influence  pp.36, 37. To my opinion, the meaning of Haemus is quite different, it is related to Central Asian Imaus, translated by Pliny as covered by snow – snowy, and it is related to Sanskrit
word hima – winter, white, snowy, Avestanic zima – winter, and common Slavic zima
– winter. The meaning in the case of Haeumus is White toped (from October till June
the tops of Stara planina are covered with snow). It remained in the people’s memory as
Stara planina – Old mountain, because the word star – old has exactly the same meaning
– white toped, having white hair. Same semantic build up old – white-topped has the Latin
word canus, which means both old and white.
Ilion was a city in South-Eastern Thrace. Duridanov , p. 38 explains the meaning
as coming from Indo-European il – mud, which is to be found in Greek ιλύς – mud, Old
Church Slavonic ИЛЪ – mud, preserved today in Russian иль – mud and Slovene ilo,
as well as jul in its Tolminski dialect. Hittites named it Wilusia. Ilion (Troy) was located
indeed in marshy area, so the name Muddy is quite logical.
Iς-μάρος Ismara was name of city and mountain in the lands of Ciconians (Northern
Greece). According to Georgiev the name comes from Indo-European wik’s mara – big
village, related to Albanian vis – settlement, Old Bulgarian ВЬСЬ (VĂSĂ – village, Avestanic
vis – home, village, Sanskrit vis – home, abode. To these I add Slovenian vas – village and
Czech ves – village. Mar (os) is related to Rumanian mare – big, Old Irish mor – big, Welsh
mawr – big, Old Sax. mari – glorious and Old Church Slavonic MEPЪ (MERĂ) – great.
The absence of the initial V Georgiev explains with the Greek influence , p. 82.
Istros was another name for river Danube. Georgiev derives its name from Sanskrit
word işira – mighty, quick, Doric Greek ιάρος – mighty, turbulent, Atic Greek ίερος – migty,
turbulent , p. 82. Georgiev had omitted the Bulgarian щур (štur) – mighty, disobedient,
щурея (štureja) – I’m quick, disobedient, втурвам се (vturvam se) – I run, also Slovene
tirati – to push, to pursue, tura – a walk, travel. The name Danube Georgiev derives from
Indo-European dehnu – mighty, turbulent, present in Avestanic danuš – river, Sanskrit
danu – river. Georgiev neglected to add the Old Bulgarian dvan – rabbit (quick one) and
Old Church Slavonic ДОУНТИ (DUNTI) – to blow, to become big. Danube – Danubis
means in my opinion – Moving, increasing (water). Other possible candidate for explaining
the name Danube are Slovene verb toniti – to drown, Slovene word dno – bottom and
Bulgarian word дъно (dăno ) bottom.
Strabo testifies about another name for Danube – Matoas, , book 7, fragment 65,
which he translates as muddy. Matoas corresponds in my opinion to Bulgarian мътен
(măten) – muddy, мътя (mătja) – I make turbulent, mătilka – turbulent water, also to
Slovene moten – muddy, unclear, motiti – to make turbulent, and Russian мутить (mutit)–
to make turbulent, мутны (mytni) – unclear, turbulent. We see that although different,
all three names Istros, Danubis, and Matoas have explanation in Slavic languages.
Kapi sturia was located in the upper stream of river Hebros (Maritsa) The name is
translated by Duridanov as Hilly country and related to Latv. word kapi – dune, Lith. kopa
– sandy hill, to Bulgarian kopa – heap, also to Old Church Slavonic СТЪРНА (STĂRNA)
– country and Old Church Slavonic ПРОСТРЕТИ (PROSTRETI) – to spread , p. 39.
Kolpa, Kupa is also the river between Slovenia and Croatia. To these I would like to add
Slovene stran – side, stranski – spread, broad, prostor – space, prostorček – small place,
prostoren – wide, broad, kopa – heap, also Russian копа (kopa) – heap, страна (strana)
country. I agree with the Duridanov’s explanation as Hilly country.
Kίςτί δίζος was a fortress in Lower Moesia (Northern Bulgaria). Georgiev translates Kίςτί
as white and corresponding to Bulgarian чист (čist) – clean , p. 84. The meaning of δίζος is
fortress as explained above, here I would like to add that čist – clean is common Slavic word.
Kurpisos was an ancient settlement in the vicinity of Chirpan, Bulgaria. According
Duridanov the root is kurp – to dig, related to Lith. kurpti – to dig, but also to Old Church
Slavonic КЪРПАТИ (KĂRPATI) to dig, Russ. корпать – (korpat) to dig, Ukrainian корпати
– to dig. Slovene verb krpati – to patch, to darn is an additional related word). Related
toponyms are Lith. Kurpu kaimas, Latv. Kurpes-gravis, Bulgarian Кърпец and Croat.
Krpec , p. 40. The meaning of Kurpisos was Excavated place.
Nestos, Mestus was the older name of Bulgarian river Mesta. Duridanov explains its
name as coming from Indo-European root ned – (In Sanskirt nadati – makes noise, also nadi – river) also Irish nes – river. He connects it also with Greek hydronymes: Neda (Arkadia),Nedon (Messenia) , p. 42. I think that Nestos is related to Old Church Slavonic НЕСТИ (NESTI) – to move, to carry, to bring, МЕСТИ, МЕТАТИ (MESTI, METATI) – to throw,
and to Modern Bulgarian НОСЯ (NOSJA) – I bring, and МЕСТЯ (MESTJA) – I remove.
In my opinion Nestos ment: Moving, bringing, carying (water). Nestos is comparable with
Visla (Vistula), which name is connected with O.Ch.Sl. verb ВЕСТИ (VESTI) – to carry,
to move. As other related Slavic hydronyms I offer Czech and Polish Nysa Luzicka (also
know as Lusatian Neisse) and Polish Nysa Klodzka.
Oδησος is translated by Vlahov (quoted by Georgiev ) as city at the water. He
derives it from the original Fοδά – water  p. 26. I agree completely with him about that
and also with his claim that at least from 6th ct. BC Proto-Slavic tribes have already lived by the Danube , p. 26.
Oρβέλος was Thracian name of the mountain Belasitsa. According Georgiev it means
White Mountain, coming from the Phrygian, or Peonian – Βελον, corresponding to Bulgarian
бел (bel) white. To that I would like to add that bel, bjal– white is common Slavic word. The
Macedonian name of Oρβέλος was Βάλάκρος, which Georgiev sees as Βάλ-άκρος – White
top , p. 33. Βάλ means white, and άκρος corresponds in my opinion to the Phrygian
word akris – end, top , p. 158, related to Russian крыша (krǎiša) roof, top, and also to
Slovene word kraj – end, Serbian and Bulgarian words край (krai) – top, end.
Ostudizos, Ostodizos was located South-East of Adrianopolis (Edirne, Turkey) perhaps
modern Hafsa. Duridanov translates it as Settlement at the estuary of the river and
connects it with Latv. uosta – estuary, Lith uostas, uosta – estuary, Latin ostium – estuary
and Old Bulgarian ОУСТИЕ – estuary , p. 43. Here I would add that Slovene and
Russian also offer related words for estuary ustje (Sl.) and устье (ustje) (Russ.). The name
of the Czech city Ústi nad Labem (The mouth above the Elbe) is also a toponym related to Ostudizos, Ostodizos.
Panax was name of the Thracian river in the Pangeus Mountain (Turkey). According
to Duridanov it comes from Indo-European poni – mud, and is connected to Goth. fani
– mud, Old Isl. fen – marsh, and Old Prussian pannean – marsh , p. 44. I think that Panax
is related also to Sanskrit pani – water, phana – foam and Slavic (Sl, Blg. Russ, Cz) word
banja – bath (water) and Bulgarian пяна (pjana) – foam, Slovene pena – foam, and Russ.
пена (pena) – foam. Considering the fact that pena (pjana) is a common Slavic word and
it is a close match to Panax, it can be claimed that this toponym was of Slavic origin.
Prasias limne was the Thracian name of lake Τάχίνο in Greece. According to Duridanov
its name is connected to Lith verb prausti – washing, Latv. verb prauslât – to splash, Sanskrit
prusnoti – to splash, and to Bulgarian prâskam – to splash, pera – I wash. The meaning
of the name must have been – Washing its banks , p. 45.
Πέργάμον, Πέργάμος was a settlement of the Bistonian tribe of Ksanti. Georgiev connects
its name with Pelasgian word πέργάμος – fortress, points to the related place names:
Πέργάμος – the fortress of Troy, Πέργάμον – city in Mysia and on Crete, and claims the
meaning of the name as coming from Indo-European bhergho-mo- mountain, connected
with German Berg – mountain , p. 89. He did not consider the Slavic (Sl. Blg, Russ)
word праг, порог (prag, porog) – threshold (high place) including the name of a European
capital: Prague. Slavic (Sl. Blg, Russ) берег, брег (bereg, breg) – bank, hill (high place), also
common Slavic Brdo, Sl. dial. also Bardo; Czech Brdy mountains. The Slavs have many
words related to Πέργάμος so this ancient toponym is probably also Slavic by origin.
Perinthos was a city on the cape (on Propontis). Duridanov connected its name with
Hittite word peruna – rock and with Sanskrit parvata – mountain. , p. 41. Partially I
agree with him, but I would like to add that Perinthos means actually first, prominent (the
city was built on a high promontory). The root was PER corresponding to Slavic (Russ.)
PERV – first, also to Bulgarian verb PERČA SE – I’m prominent, I boast. The particle
INT corresponds to ENT in Old Ch. Sl: СВЕНТЪ (SVENTǍ) – bright, holy. That suffix
is evolved today in ET, IT and AT, that we can se in Bulgarian words: свет (svet) – bright,
holy, мразовит (mrazovit) – chilly, виноват (vinovat) – guilty, also in Slovene words
kostnat – bony, silovit – strong, violent, bregovit – hilly. Same suffix INT as in Perinthos
we see in the names of the cities Korinthos, Olinthos and Zerynthos.
Korinthos bares in fact the same name as Carinthia – region in the Alps inhabited
by Slovenians from deep antiquity , pp. 138-143. The meaning of Korinthos and
Carintia is: Mountain land, Place in the mountain. The root is KAR, KOR corresponding to
Thracian words for mountain: GAR , p. 10, KARA , p. 100, which is nothing more
than archaic variant of common Slavic GORA – mountain. Slovenian language offers the
most related words: gor – on the top, gori – up, gorica – hill, grič – hill, hribovit – hilly,
hrib – hill, mountain, kar, karn, karnele – a steep, rocky mountain , p.146.
Olinthos meant in my opinion: City of the deers. I derive its name from common
Slavic word ELEN – deer, having variant олëн (oljon) in Russian.
Zerinthos is translated as Place of beast (place rich in beasts) by Duridanov , p.
55. He compares ZER in Zerinthos with Thracian word ZER – beast, corresponding to
common Slavic zver – beast, having form зуер – (zwer) in some Bulgarian dialects. Slavic
tvor creature, German Tier, ultimately English deer are similar.
Ramae was the oldest name of Ljubimets, which Duridanov connects with Lith. ramussilent
, p. 47, but he didn’t mention Bulgarian word ръмеж (rămez) – silent rain.
Rhusion was another name of the ancient city Topeira, located on the eastern bank
of river Mesta. Duridanov compares Rhusion to the Old Prussian toponym Russe, also
to Lith. rusas – well for potatoes, Latv. rusa – well, Latv. verb ruseti – to flow slowly ,
p. 47. He did not consider the Bulgarian verb рося (rosja) руся (rusja, dial.) – I irrigate,
and common Slavic rosa – dew. It meant in my opinion Irrigated place and is related to
the name of Bulgarian city Russe on river Danube.
Seietovia was located somewhere in Southern Bulgaria. Duridanov derives the name
from a dedicatory plate of local deity – Seietovien(us) and suspects that the name is connected
with Lith. sietuva – deep place in river, well, and mentions also the Illyrian place
name Setovia (Dalmatia) , p. 48. I think that Seietovia is connected with the Old Slavic
theonym Sventovit, because Duridanov reconstructed Seietovia from the name of the
Thracian god Xeros Seietovien(us) documented in ancient inscription. In my opinion
Seietovia, or originally Swentowia meant – Settlement (of the worshipers) of Sventovit.
Σηλυμβριά, Seli-bria was situated on Propontis (Marmara sea). Strabo thinks that it
means City of Selis , book 7, 6, 1, but according to Georgiev such etymology is naïve,
because the ancient authors did not understand the scientific etymology of the word they
sought in the toponym a name of some hero , p. 18. In think that the part Σηλυ is connected
with the ethnonym Σέλλοί, both related to O.Ch.Sl. СЕЛО (SELO) – village.
Σέλλοί means in my opinion settled people, and Σηλυ-βριά means: The community of the settled
people. As mentioned above, the process of permanent settling of the Thracians began much
earlier in the southern regions, because of the many advantageous factors.
Skapto para was a village near modern Blagoevgrad (Blg). Duridanov derives its name
form the Greek verb skapto – I dig, Lith. verb skaptuoti – to dig , p. 49, but does not
mention Old Bulgarian verb СКОПИТИ (skopiti – to cut, also the common Slavic kopati
– to dig, Bulgarian копач (kopač) – digger. Skapto para means – Village of the diggers.
Related Slavic toponyms could be Slovene Skopana vas, Izkopana vas (rem. A. Perdih).
Slovene verb skopati – to dig out, to dig up has preserved its ancient form and is phonetically
closest one to the Thracian verb skapt – to dig.
Strymon was the ancient name of Bulgarian river Struma. Duridanov derives its
name from the Indo-European sreu, sru – I flow, stream and connects it with Lith. sruti
(sruvu, srunu) I fill with water, I flow, Polish strumien – creek, German Strom – stream,
Old Irish sruaim – I flow and Lith. sraumo – quick stream , p. 51. To these I would
like to add Bulgarian words устрем (ustrem)– acceleration, стремя се (stremja se) – I
strive, стремителен (stremitelen)– quick, also стрелкам се (strelkam se) – I move quickly
forwards. Strymon ment thus Quick moving water.
Stryme was the name of a Thracian settlement on the territory of the Modern Greece.
The origin of the name is the same as that of Strymon. Duridanov compares Stryme with
the name of the Bulgarian village Strima, , p. 51. The meaning of Stryme was: Settlement
near quick river.
Tάπή is defined as Daco-Moesian name of settlement near the present Železni vrata (Iron
gates). The place is in the valley between Carpatians and Stara planina and is known for the
quick and dangerous streams of Danube. According to Georgiev Tάπή comes from Indo-
Eurpean tokwuy – quick stream, corresponding to Old Bulgarian ТОКЪ (TOKĂ) Russian
ток (tok) stream, current, also to Avestanic taka – run , p. 36. Slovene teči – to flow, tečaj
– current, tičati – to run, točiti – to flow, to pour, and tok – current are also related.
Tarpodizos – today Kovchas (Turkey). Duridanov connects Tarpo with Lith. tarpas
– hollow, also with O.Ch.Sl. TRAP – well, pit, also with Modern Bulgarian трап (trap) well,
pit, so Tarpodizos ment: Fortress in a valley, Fortress in a low place , p. 51,52.
Tibisia, Τίβισκος were names of Thracian river, which name Detchev connects with
Indo-European tai, ti – to melt, to flow, present in Grek τίφος – marshy area, wet ground,
, p. 24, also in Bulgarian топя (topja) – I melt, I put under water, Slovenian words
topiti – to melt, topljenje – melting, Russian топить (topit) – to melt, топь (top) – marsh,
топкий (topky) – marshy.
Timachus is the older name of river Timok. Georgiev derives its name from Indo-
Europen tm-akwa – black, dark water, river and connects it with Old Bulgarian ТЬМА
(TĂMA) – darkness, from which also come the names of the Bulgarian rivers Temščiĉa,
Temna reka, Temnoto dere, and Serbian Tamnava , p. 34. Slovenian Temenica, Timava
are other hydronyms related to Timachus. I personally consider the particle ok in Timok
as typical Slavic suffix, which we can see in Russian word klenok – blade, Slovene klinček
– nail, Bulgarian храсталак (hrastalak) – bushes.
Tonzos was the Thracian name of Bulgarian river Tundža, which name Georgiev
explains from Indo-European (s)tundo, related to Armenian t‘ndum – noise, Albanian
shty(n)j – to hit, Sanskrit tundate – to hit, and Latin tundo – to hit , p. 52. He however
seems not to have considered Bulgarian, ston – moan, stena – I moan, tăten – noice, tunder,
dandanija – noice, and dial. dănja – I hit. Slovene verb doneti – to sound, to thunder is
also related. Tonzos meant Noisy, moaning river.
Utus was fortress on river Utus (Modern Vit). Duridanov connects Utus with IE udo’s – water,
found in the Grek hydos – water , p. 54. Here I add Bulgarian dial. – удъ (udă) water.
Veleka is river near Ahtopol, Bulgaria, which name according Duridanov can’t be
explained from Bulgarian language, nor from Greek, Turkish, or Rumanian , p. 56.
Connection is sought in Lith. velekes – place for washing in the water and veleti – to wash
with bath, stick. Veleka is a relatively slow river, and in my opinion its name is connected
with Bulgarian verb влача (vlača) – I carry, I pull, I drag, also with the word влак (vlak)–
train – pulling, dragging. Slovenian equivalents are vlačiti – to drag, vlačilec – dragging
ship. Other explanation could be Bulgarian word велика (velika) – big fem. gen. (here in
the sense – becoming big in certain period of time). Slov. velika – big one, Russ. великая
(velikaja) – big one are also related.
Zuro bara was a Dacian settlement (Northern Rumania). Zuro corresponds to Old
Bulgarian ЗОРИЯ (ZORYA) – brightness, dawn, to Bulg. Dial. зура (zura) – dawn, to
common Slavic zora – dawn, and Sanskrit surya – dawn. Bara corresponds to Slovenian
word barje – marsh, and Bulgarian бара (bara) – marsh. The meaning of Zuro bara was
Shiny, brigth marsh (marsh with bright surface).
Ζάλδοκέλή was the Thracian name of the creek, called today Zlatna Panega. Georgiev
connects Ζάλδο with IE gholto – gold, related to Russian золото (zoloto) – gold and
Bulgarian златo (zlato) – gold. The second word κέλή Georgiev connects with IE gwelna
– creek, corresponding to German Quelle – creek, spring , p. 31. I think that κέλή corresponds
also to O. Blg. ХЛЕНБЪ (hlenbǎ) – creek, spring, КЛОКОТАТИ (klokotati) – to
brawl, Modern Bulg. кълна (kǎlna) – I germinate, бликам (blikam) – I spring (like water)
and Slovene kliti – to grow.
If we compare the Thracian terms for settlements with Slavic, English, Greek, Latin
and Lithuanian we will see that Slavic languages have the most and best matches. That
can be seen in Table 1.
We see that from 10 Thracian terms for settlement, 9 are still present in the vocabulary
of the Bulgarian, Czech, Russian and Slovenian people. Greek related words are 6: χοριο
– village, δουβάρι – fence, πέριβολι – garden, enclosure, Fάςτυ – city, δομος – abode and
τοπος – place, but I think that Fάςτυ – city is of Pelasgian origin. Latin gives 4 related words:
hortis – garden, enclosure, taberna – room, domus – home, vicus – village. Lithuanian,although offering close matches offers only three related words: tvaras – fence, namas – home and miestas – village, town. The English offer only one word – yard, corresponding to Thracian gordo – city, enclosed place. Where these Thracian terms for settlement
are positioned, can be seen in Map 2.
From the 30 additional words extracted from the Thracian toponyms and hydronyms
30 have very good matches in Bulgarian and the other Slavic languages. Lithuanian offers
16 matches, Greek 13, Latin 5 and English 4. We can see that again the Slavic languages
offer the most and the best matches.
The resemblance of many names is so strikingly close that it can’t be called coincidence.
And if we consider the fact that Thracian words were documented about 2000 years ago,
it will not be an exaggeration to say that in fact they are identical with the Slavic ones.
The comparision presented in the Tables 1, 2 and 3 has never been made by any scientist,
who studied the ancient Thracian culture. That is why now we have the wrong impression
that Thracians have disappeared into thin air and the Slavs came to the lands south of the
Danube as invaders.
To that wrong view contributed the ignoring of the historical testimonies of T. Simokatta
(cited by Tsenov , p. 14), who equates Slavs and Thracians, while the old writer is very
clear saying: Sclavos sive Getas hoc enim nomine antiquitus appellati sunt – Slavs, or
Getae, because that was their name in the antiquity.
Ignored was also the amazing similarity of the Slavic and Thracian burial rituals.
Herodotus narrated how after the burial took place, games were organized around his
grave , V-8. These are in my opinion the Old Slavic Trizna games, played after the
burial , p. 126. Herodotus gives us another very important detail from the burial rites
of the ancient Thracians: the wife of the deceased followed him voluntary into the grave
, V-8. About the same peculiarity writes Pseudomaurikius in Strategikon, describing
the life of the Thracians – Their wives are so pious that follow the man in the grave (cited
by Bakalov et al. , p. 144.)
One more peculiar ritual of the Thracian burial rites was the placing of horse and dog
in the grave , p. 212; exactly the same ritual was practised by the Old Bulgarians till
about 9th ct. AD , p. 330-333.
If the Old Slavs were invaders in the lands south of the Danube than we should see
sharp change in the material culture after the ‘invasion’, but such change is not attested.
Thracian domestic pottery of 5th ct. B.C. is identical to Old Slavic domestic pottery of 5th
ct. A.D. Tsvetkov’s explanation to this almost unknown fact was that the similarity appeared
because the conditions of production were the same , p. 56. I can’t agree that
the similar conditions of production would lead to same shape and ornaments. The village
population of different countries might have produced its pottery in similar conditions,
but every ethnic group has its own style, taste, and needs, which would be reflected in the
shape, size and the ornaments of the vessels. Let’s not forget that only the Slavic domestic
pottery is undistinguishable from the Thracians one. Greek, Roman and Anglo-Saxon ones
are quite different.
Nobody has brought to attention the similarity of the Thracian and Old Slavic pantheon.
In my opinion, Thracian Perkun corresponds to Slavic Perun, Thracian Seitovins
to Slavic Sventovit, Thracian Ares to Slavic Jarovit, Thracian Balenos to Slavic Belen,
Thracian Kerilos to Slavic Černobog, Thracian Zemi – Zemela to Slavic Zemina – Mati Sira Zemlja. Even the common Slavic word for God – BOG is in fact the same as the Thracian one – BAGO – God.
It is an interesting, but unknown fact that Thracians ethnonyms are easy to explain in
Slavic languages as Bulgarian, Slovene, Czech, Russian, and others:
Agriani were mountaineers and their name corresponds to Blg. горяни (gorjani)
– mountaineers and Sl. gorjanec – mountaneer.
Briges inhabited hilly, mountain regions too. BREG is common Slavic word for hill,
Derzi corresponds to O.Blg. ДРЕЗЪ (drezǎ) dearing, bold, Sl. drzek, drzen – bold,
Cz. drzost – boldness, Russ. дерзкий (derzkii) – bold.
Dolongi corresponds to O. Ch. Sl. ДОЛОНГЪ (DOLONGǍ) – long one.
Drugeri corresponds to Blg. другари (drugari) – comrades, but the actual meaning of the
ethnonym Drugeri is family, community, corresponding perfectly to Sl. word družina – family.
In my opinion Tracian tribe Drugeri is the same one as the Old Slavic Drugoviti.
Moriseni lived at the coast of Black Sea, their name corresponds to common Slavic word MORE – sea.
Sijaleti consists of two parts: sija corresponding to common Slavic verb sejati – to sow,
and leti corresponds to common Slavic ljude, ljudi, lide – people. Sijaleti means simply
sowers, agricultural people.
Vessi correspond to O. Ch. Sl. ВЬСЪ (VESǍ) – village, settlement, Vessi means settled
people. Slovene VAS, dial. VES – village.
It is worth mentioning also that the Thracian personal names are not alien to the
Slavic people. Thracian name Karsimar corresponds to Bulgarian Красимир (Krasimir),
Thracian Berimar corresponds to Bulgarian Беримир (Berimir), Thracian name Burzas
corresponds to Bulgarian Бързой (Bǎrzoi). Much more examples of common Thracian and
Slavic names can be given. Important is that the names of the Thracians can be explained
using the languages of the Slavic people. For example, Skorilo was a king of Dacians. His
name corresponds to Bulgarian name Скорил (Skoril), derived from the O. Blg. word
скоръ (skorǎ) – quick. Other related Bulgarian words are скорост (skorost) – speed,
ускорявам (uskorjavam) – I speed up, скоро (skoro) – soon.
Further I wish to mention that the recent genetic research has shown that Bulgarians
are progeny of the Thracians, but Tsvetkov seeks the genetic similarity of Thracians and
Old Bulgarians in Bactria, where according to him 80 000 Thracians from the army of
Alexander the Great have mingled with Bulgarians , p. 54, 55. The information, which
Tsvetkov presents, is wrong. The amount of 80 000 men wasn’t the number of Thracians in
the Alexander’s army, but the largest amount of the soldiers of the Macedonian conqueror
while he was in Persia: Macedonians, Greeks, Persians, Sogdians and others. Thracians
were only few thousand people, a large part of which died in the battles.
Bulgarians have genetic closeness with the Thracians because they are the progeny of
the Thracians. The anthropological researches in the 30-ties of the 20th century proved that
Bulgarians belong to the Slavic family , p. 170. (That is Slavs, whom Simokata called
Thracians – Getae). Unfortunately, the result came out in 1936, when the government of
the Kingdom Bulgaria sympathized with Germany – a non-Slavic country. The research
was negated and surpressed, and in later times the books of Prof. Tsenov mentioning the
conclusion of the anthropologists were inadmissible.
The presentation of above facts brings new light to the question: Did Thracians disappear
in thin air, and were the Slavs invaders at all?
If we see that the inhabitants of certain land have same burial rites, material culture
and religion as the inhabitants of the same land 1000 years later, and if the place names of
the oldest inhabitants are candidates to explain from the language of these, who inhabit
the same land later, the most logical and parsimonious conclusion is that we have the one
and the same people, only known under different names. That possibility is confirmed
by the historical sources, equating the two groups, so the only thing, which remains is to
rewrite the early history of the Slavs, called Thracians in antiquity.
I wish to thank to Prof. Dr. A. Perdih and to the reviewers for all their help in improvement
of this paper. I wish to express my thankfulness also to my wife Emma for her
unconditional support, as well as to Dimiter and Iva for providing me with important
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Povzetek Etimološka analiza trakijskih krajevnih in vodnih imen
Podana je etimološka analiza 60 trakijskih toponimov, hidronimov in oronimov. Rezultati
kažejo, da so Slovani prvotno prebivalstvo tega območja, v skladu s poročilom Simokatte, ki
je Trakijce (imenovane Getae) enačil s Slovani: «Sclavos sive Getas hoc enim nomine antiquitus
appellati sunt» – «Slovani ali Geti, saj so jih nekdaj tako imenovali».
(TO BE CONTINUED)