The League of Corinth or Hellenic League- A PANHELLENIC ALLIENCE-koine eirene


PHILIP II IS RESPONSIBLE  FOR THE GREATNESS OF MACEDONIA

King Philip II, the father of Alexander The Great, liberated Macedonia from the barbarians and made it into a well organized and powerful kingdom (Greek city-state). Subsequently, all of the Greek city-states asked Philip if he would accept becoming the Supreme Commander of the armed forces (The League of Corinth or Hellenic League) and thereafter proclaimed him Supreme Commander of all Greeks.

The ancient writers Diodoros, Plutarch and others report that Philip II was one of the most important kings of Macedonia. Firstly, because he liberated Macedonia from the Illyrians and secondly, established Macedonia’s sovereignty and subsequent mastery of all Greeks, who accepted him as their regent (hegemon). Unfortunately though, shortly thereafter he was assassinated.

“Having ascended to the throne (king Philip II, the son of Amyntas) in the most difficult times with the Illyrians; the kingdom virtually at the brink of collapse and its neighbors ready to put an end to its existence, it was only because of his brilliant political and military skills that he was able to re-establish order in the kingdom and become the supreme commander of Greece”, (Diodoros 16.1).

Specifically, after the battle of Chaironeia (338 B.C.), when no city in Greece dared not to respect the Macedonians, the then king of Macedonia Philip II, in early 337 B.C. convened in Corinth a congress of the Greeks/Hellenes (The League of Corinth or Hellenic League), a federation of Greek city-states to discuss and resolve the Greek issues (that is, civil conflicts, and the renewed intervention of the Persians into Greek internal affairs). In this congress it was agreed that peace must exist among all Greek city-states and member city-states constitutions to be guaranteed and protected.

The League would act to prevent any acts of aggression or subversion against any member state. The League would maintain an army and naval force levied from member city-states in approximate proportion to their size. Philip II was declared Supreme Commander of the League’s army with full authority to use these military forces in the war against Persia to avenge Xerxes’s pillages, wrong-doings, horrific crimes, etc. committed during the Persian invasions of Greece.

The above-mentioned decision at “The League of Corinth” had been also taken because several Greek intellectuals of this period, e.g. the orator Isokrates, proclaimed that the only solution to the Greek issues, were (the cease of civil wars and the end of Persian interference or aggression). That is, the peaceful coexistence and pacification of all Greek city-states, the political unification of all Greeks and the common war against the barbarians, that is to say the Persians and their allies (Kares, Phoenicians, and others).

The Battle Of Chaironeia 338 B.C.

The 7th of August, 338 B.C., the Thebans having their ally Athens, met in Chaironeia the army of king Philip II of Macedonia. After a long and hard fought battle, the Macedonian army won. All men of the Sacred Company of the Thebans that had not been defeated until then were killed. All were interred at the point where they fell and in their honor the Thebans set up a lion stone. In 336 B.C., after continuous rumors regarding the death of Alexander The Great, the Thebans assisted by Athens with money and arms, entered the city, but could not reclaim and occupy Kadmeia. Immediately, they convened a general council and they discussed to free the city, as Pelopidas had done fifty years ago. The resident citizens accepted it and voted for the independence of Thebes. Efforts however to expel the Macedonian garrison failed. They also sent representatives to Arkadia and other cities calling upon them to join with them. Unfortunately however for them, no other city accepted. During all this time Alexander was in Illyria, where upon learning this with lightening speed returned to Thebes, but did not attack the city immediately, hoping that they will surrender. He made a proclamation to the Thebans to hand over their two leaders and that he would pardon all others. The Thebans reciprocating, demanded that he hand-over to them generals Antipatros and Filotas, as a guarantee for their safety. After that response, Alexander encircled the city with rock-throwing machines and was ready to attack, but he still waited in case they change their minds. After however excessive exchanges of abusive language and arguments between the Theban men, who were outside the city walls, in front of the gate ready to defend their city, and general Perdikas men the battle started. The Thebans fought bravely, but they were forced finally to retreat inside the walls. The Macedonians then stormed the city, killing more than six thousand. Thirty thousand were sold as slaves. The Macedonian losses were five hundred men. The city was looted and burned, except the temples and the house of the great lyric poet Pindar Twenty years later, in 316 B.C., Kassandros rebuilt the city, which however from this time on did not regain a major role in the affairs of Greece.

3. ALEXANDER THE GREAT

PAN-HELLENIC ALLIANCE,

THE CAUSES FOR THE CAMPAIGN IN ASIA AND AFRICA

A. THE CONGRESS OF CORINTH – PAN-HELLENIC ALLIANCE

After the battle of Chaironeia (338 B.C.), whereby no city in Greece dared not to respect the Macedonians, the then king of Macedonia Philip II (or Philip The Macedonian), in early 337 B.C. convened in Corinth a congress of the Greeks/Hellenes (The League of Corinth or Hellenic League), a federation of Greek city-states to discuss and resolve the Greek issues (that is, civil conflicts, and the renewed intervention of the Persians into Greek internal affairs, and other). In this congress it was agreed that peace must exist among all Greek city-states and member city-states constitutions, in effect of this date, to be guaranteed and protected. The League would act to prevent any acts of aggression or subversion against any member state. The League would maintain an army and naval force levied from member city-states in approximate proportion to their size.

Philip II was declared Supreme Commander of the League’s army with full authority to use these military forces in the campaign against Persia to avenge Xerxes’s pillages, wrong-doings, horrific crimes, etc. committed during the Persian invasions of Greece.

The above-mentioned decision at “The League of Corinth” had been also taken because several Greek intellectuals of this period, e.g. the orator Isokrates, proclaiming that the only solution to the Greek issues, were (the cease of civil wars and the end of Persian interference or aggression). That is, the peaceful coexistence and pacification of all Greek city-states, the political unification of all Greeks and the common war against the barbarians, that is to say the Persians and their allies (Kares, Phoenicians, and others).

B. THE ASSASSINATION OF PHILIP II – ALEXANDER THE GREAT

The Persians seeing king Philip II creating a very powerful state, hence a threat to them who until now were the almighty lords of all, they secretly organized and conspired his assassination shortly thereafter the Congress of Corinth or The League Of Corinth (336 B.C.).

Succeeding Phillip II to the throne was his son Alexander III, thereafter named Alexander The Great. As soon as he undertook the throne, Alexander convened the Council of Greek city-states, that is the League Of Corinth (Athenians, Spartans, and others) in Corinth, which was created by his father, and demanded from the league’s members the leadership for the military campaign against the Persians in Asia, because of the Persian intervention in Greek internal affairs and the assassination by them of his father, Philip. They all accepted except the Lakedaimonians, who responded by stating that their tradition dictates that the Spartans lead and do not follow. Consequently, in the campaign in Asia all Greek city-states participated except the Lakedaimonians (Spartans) under the leadership of Alexander.

The ancient writers report:

“The federation of Greek city-states (League of Corinth) having met at the Canal of Corinth, voted and authorized Alexander as Supreme Commander of the league’s army and navy in the military campaign against Persia”, Plutarch, (Alexander 14).

"When Alexander ascended to the throne, as the son of Assassinated King Philip II and went to Peloponnesus – he was roughly twenty years old. There he assembled the Peloponnesians and demanded the leadership for the military campaign (invasion) against the Persians, since it had already been assigned to his father Philip II. All agreed, except the Spartans, who responded by stating: The Spartans do not follow, but rather others follow the Spartans….." Arrian, (Alexander’s Anavasis A 1).

SOURCE http://www.krassanakis.gr/Macedony.htm

The Corinthian league


In August 338, the Macedonian king Philip had defeated an army of Athenians and Thebans on the plain of Chaeronea, a town in Central Greece (story). The Macedonian victory meant the end of the independence of the Greek towns: Philip forced them to join the Corinthian league. The Roman author Marcus Junianus Justinus -in English better known as Justin- gives a description of the first meeting in his Excerpt of the History of Philip by Pompeius Trogus (section 9.5). The translation was made by Michael Crawford and David Whitehead.

After he had settled matters in Greece, Philip ordered that envoys should be summoned to Corinth from all the states with a view to consolidating the settlement. He there propounded a covenant of peace for the whole of Greece, giving each state the share that it deserved, and he created a council of representatives to serve as a sort of common senate.

Only the Spartans refused to have anything to do with the king or with the covenant; they considered that a settlement imposed by the victor instead of being agreed on by the states concerned meant enslavement, not peace.

Next, the military contributions were fixed that the individual states were to make, whether to assist the king against attack or for making war under his command. But everyone realized that these arrangements were directed against the Persian empire.

The text of the treaty has been partly preserved. The first line runs like this:

I swear by Zeus, Earth, Sun, Poseidon, Athena, Ares, and all the gods and goddesses.

  • I will abide by the peace;
  • I will not break the agreements with Philip the Macedonian;
  • nor will I take up arms with hostile intent against any one of those who abide by the oaths either by land or by sea.
  • The provisions of the treaty were:

    1. that the constitutions of the member states would remain unchanged;
    2. that violence between the member states was no longer permitted;
    3. that, in case of the overthrow of a government, a congress of representatives, was to meet at Corinth;
    4. that it would establish the facts and declare war;
    5. that the league’s army was to be commanded by Philip;
    6. that the league’s member states would sent a number of soldiers to the league’s army in proportion to their size.

    source  http://www.livius.org/

    About sooteris kyritsis

    Job title: (f)PHELLOW OF SOPHIA Profession: RESEARCHER Company: ANTHROOPISMOS Favorite quote: "ITS TIME FOR KOSMOPOLITANS(=HELLINES) TO FLY IN SPACE." Interested in: Activity Partners, Friends Fashion: Classic Humor: Friendly Places lived: EN THE HIGHLANDS OF KOSMOS THROUGH THE DARKNESS OF AMENTHE
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